Anatomy & Physiology Notes Week 1
Anatomy & Physiology Notes Week 1 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
Anatomy o Greek Anatome – dissect Only way to figure out what was inside the body was to cut open the outside of the body o Definition - the study of structure and the relationship among structures Looking at what the parts are, not what they do o Subdivisions – approaches to studying anatomy Gross anatomy – macroscopic; big things Bone, muscles, big organs (heart, lungs, brain) Regional anatomy – looking at a specific region of the body Thoracic, abdominal, leg, etc Used by advanced med school students with specialties Systemic anatomy – looking at specific organ systems Cardiovascular, muscular, skeletal, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, digestive, etc Surface anatomy – study of form and markings on the surface of the body Has led to forensic reconstruction Includes parts that are visible with the naked eye Microscopic anatomy – things we can’t see without a microscope Parts that are smaller than ½ mm Cytology – the study of cells Histology – the study of tissues Developmental anatomy – the study of changes in anatomy from the fertilized egg until death Embryology – deals with the time of fertilization until birth Pathological anatomy – study of change to structure due to disease Radiographic anatomy – the study of structure using socialized imaging technology Medical imaging o X-ray – passing short light waves through the body; gamma radiation Things that absorb the most light energy show up the brightest (bones) Can see broken bones, tumors, abnormal calcification o CT scan – computerized tomography; using light energy in sections; basically an x-ray in different sections; can break apart an x-ray Use for brain scans looking for tumor, additional nasal tissue, etc o Xenon CT – xenon is a gas that is radioactively labeled; gives off gamma radiation; colorized CT Patient inhales xenon gas lungs bloodstream delivered to most active tissue Can diagnose what’s happening in the brain without cutting open Computer interprets the xenon o DSR scan – dynamic spacial reconstruction; light energy is being used to take pictures all the way around the body so we get a 3D image that we can rotate o DSA – digital subtraction angiography (angiography = related to blood vessels) Before picture inject contrast medium (dye) take second picture Use computer to subtract everything from first picture from second picture Can diagnose blood vessel blockages, concussions, thrombosis, etc o PET scan – positron emission tomography; injecting a radioisotope into body Radioisotope travels and cells that are most active will pick it up Look at metabolic processes Can look at Parkinson’s disease (basal nuclei, which fine tune muscle contractions, don’t work, so patient gets tremors) o All of the above use light energy o Ultrasound – uses sound waves; high frequency sound travels through the body and is picked up by the receiver Used to look at embryological development Can do a 3D ultrasound, or 4D ultrasound o MRI – magnetic residence imagery; uses magnetic waves Magnetic energy passes through the body and it becomes polarized Uses hydrogen ions most prevalent in soft tissue No bone tissue shows up Great at showing soft tissue see if an ACL is torn, etc Sometimes computer can go back in and put the bone tissue back in o MRS – magnetic residence spectrography; use a pulse of magnetic field but it goes after ions other than water Kidneys – full of sodium Muscle – full of calcium o M2A – pill that has a camera in it; digital camera with light source; takes pictures as it moves through the digestive tract; pictures get stored on a small SD card Battery light in camera is less than 18 hours Light burns out around the small intestine Physiology o Greek Physis - function Logos – study of o Definition – the study of functions of body parts Includes chemical and physical processes o The Big Integration Structure can dictate function Function can regulate structure o Levels of organization Chemical All of the chemicals that are essential to life and what roles they play in our body i.e. How does bicarbonate function in our body? Cellular The cell is the structural and functional unit of life Cells are comprised of a bunch of different chemicals Tissues Two or more cells working collectively toward a specific task Neurons function together to make the nervous system work Organ Two or more tissues working collectively toward a specific task Organ system Two or more organs working together toward a specific system o i.e. muscular system, nervous system, digestive system, etc Organismic level An organism’s entire body Life processes o Living things possess certain attributes o Limiting boundaries – barrier for humans is skin The inside of our bodies have a different environment than the outside o Excitability – the ability to sense change within or around our bodies We respond to stimuli i.e. when the light goes down, the pupils in our eyes will dilate o conductivity – connecting one part to the other o metabolism- the sum total of all of the chemical reactions that occur in our body catabolism – breakdown pathways (i.e. we eat a meal and break it down chemically) anabolism - we build things up (i.e. we take amino acids in our body and build them up to make muscle) o digestion – intake and breakdown of food o excretion – the elimination of waste fecal, urine, sweat, exhale o movement – the contraction of muscle locomotion – movement of skeletal movement pump blood- cardiac muscles o growth – an increase in size; increase in number of cells; increase in size of cells born with all of the muscle cells we will ever have – muscle cells just grow as we age born with all of the adipose cells we will ever have as well o reproduction – cells reproduce themselves – mitosis; the production of new individuals – procreation Survival needs (need to have in the correct amount) o nutrients – all of the chemical substances that are used for energy or cell production get our nutrients from the food we eat o oxygen – electron acceptor for cellular respiration o water – body is made of between 60-80% get water from the things we drink and the food we eat we are also constantly losing water sweating, urination constant water balance o normal body temperature – 37 degrees C is the human body temp; 96.8 degrees F below 95 degrees metabolic system slows down above 99 degrees and proteins start to denature o atmospheric pressure – without this we couldn’t breathe; changes with elevation homeostasis o homios – like o stasis – the same o “standing still” in Greek o Definition – condition of stable internal body environment Never constant, rather a dynamic equilibrium o We need all of our survival needs to be at optimal level o Requirements for homestasis When survival needs are at optimum Stress o Old French Estresse – narrowness o Definition – any stimulus causing an imbalance in the internal environment All stimuli cause a response, not all disturb homeostasis Can be internal and external stresses Stress regulation o Nervous system - we detect stress messages and send electrical messages to counteract Integrator-brain or spinal cord, affector o Endocrine system - chemical messages (hormones) Feedback systems o Anglo saxon – british empire Fedan – food Baec – back o Greek Systema o Definition – any circular situation where info about the status of something is continually report back to a central control region Feedback is a circular system Info about anything – irritation in bladder, skin detecting that it is warm, etc Central control region is usually the CNS (brain/spinal cord) o general terms 1. Stimulus produces change in variable 2. Change detected by receptor 3. Input: info sent along different pathway to control center 4. Output: info sent along efferent pathway to effector 5. Response of effector feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable to homeostasis o Negative feedback – response of the feedback cycle is to reverse the initial condition i.e. thermostat – equilibrium is 75 degrees, if it gets hotter than that, the AC comes on and reverses the condition i.e. blood glucose is too low, so our body reverses the condition o positive feedback – the response is to intensify the condition & we continue to intensify the condition until the stimulus is gone i.e. child birth, consumption of alcohol affects the brain which says send more alcohol throw up Chemistry Matter o Latin – materia (timber, substance) o Definition – anything that occupies space and has mass o Is composed of chemical elements Elements o Substances that cannot be decomposed into smaller substances by ordinary chemical reactions Chemical elements o 118 chemical elements recognized 92 occur naturally Other 16 are manmade in particle accelerators Not very stable o Human body contains 24 O, C, H & N = 96% These plus Ca & P = 99% Others called trace elements – the other elements that occur but not in very high quantities Can’t have any nervous contraction without sodium or potassium States of matter o Solid – form of matter that has a definitive shape i.e. crystal, teeth, bones all atoms that make up matter are constantly moving, but solids have atoms that move most slowly o liquid – assume the shape of the container that holds them can go from a solid to liquid by changing the speed of the atoms atoms moving faster i.e. plasma takes the shape of the blood vessels that contain them; urine takes the shape of the bladder which contains it o *solids and liquids have a definite volume* o Gas – no definitive shape or volume Expands to the volume of the container Highest speed of molecular motion i.e. air in lungs take the shape of lungs; when we breathe, lungs expand and gas inside expands as well Energy o Greek en – within ergon – work o definition – the ability to do work; the ability to put matter into motion energy allows molecules to move o forms of energy potential – stored energy i.e. a rollercoaster car sitting on top of a hill kinetic – the energy of motion i.e. a rollercoaster going down a hill chemical – the energy that is present in chemical bonds (the bonds between elements) if we break a bond between elements, we release energy; when we create a bond, we take energy electrical – the energy that results from the flow of charged particles charged particles in body; as particles move around, it creates electrical energy sodium and potassium are most important charged particles mechanical – the energy of motion; the energy required for movement i.e. wind turbine – wind causes turbines to spin; mechanical energy converted to electrical energy electromagnetic – energy that travels in waves light and sound waves “radiant” energy – heat/temperature travels in waves also; light and sound plus heat Energy conversions o Thermodynamics First law states that energy cannot be created or destroyed energy is transformed from one type to another Second law – none of the transfers is 100% efficient; energy gets lost to the environment primarily as heat Changing the motion of molecules changes the form of energy changes the state of matter Atom o Greek Atomos – indivisible o Definition – the smallest unit of matter that can enter into a chemical reaction o All elements are composed of atoms o Atoms allow elements to be reactive o Composition Nucleus – center of the atom; where most of the mass of the atom exists Protons – positively charged particles o Number of protons in the nucleus is equal to the number of electrons floating around Neutrons – neutrally charged particles *charge is not equal to mass* Electrons – negatively charged particles o Atomic number The number of protons that exists of the nucleus Protons = electrons So, we know the number of electrons as well o Atomic mass Sum of the number of protons plus the number of neutrons o Isotope – atoms that have the same number of protons and electrons, but different numbers of neutrons Unstable and usually radioactive o Periodic table Developed by Russian chemist He put atoms or elements that have similar properties close to each other Noble gases – nonreactive Each element has an atomic symbol which is an abbreviation for what it is Energy levels o Regions in which the electrons move around the nucleus o Identified as orbitals or shells Chemical definition - the region around the nucleus where the electron could be found most of the time o Each has a maximum number of electrons it can hold o First shell can hold two, others can hold eight Valence electrons o The number of extra or deficient electrons in the outermost energy level o Reactivity, the ability to engage in chemical reactions, is determined by valence electrons o Deficiency or excessiveness determines how the element is going to work Chemical reactions o Combining or breaking apart of atoms forming new products with different properties from the originals o Exchange of outer electrons to produce new products that have different properties than the originals o Atoms always try to fill their outermost energy level Accomplished by giving up, accepting, or sharing electrons Molecule o Combination of two or more atoms from a chemical reaction Compound o Substance that can be broken down into two or more others by a chemical means Always contain two or more different elements Chemical bonding o Attractive forces that hold together the atoms of a molecule o Types of bonds Ionic – opposites attract; positive and negative charge are attracted Ion – charged substance; extra or deficient electron; positively or negatively charged particles which result when an atom gains or loses electrons o Positive charge – electron deficiency Cation – electron donor; number of protons exceeds number or electrons o Negative charge – extra electron Anion – electron acceptor; number of protons is less than number of electrons Results in polar compounds Covalent – atoms share the electrons Single covalent bond – share one bond of electrons Double covalent bond – share two pairs of electrons; stronger Triple covalent bond – share three pairs of electrons; strongest Result in nonpolar molecules Polarity determines whether or not the particle can get through the wall of a cell Can have partially polar covalent bonds o Electronegativity Hydrogen – attractive force between atoms; not really a bond; very weak bond that exists due to partial negativity Between a hydrogen bond and something else Usually nitrogen and oxygen “bond to one but attracted to another” Chemical reactions o Making or breaking of bonds o Number of atoms remains the same but are rearranged o Can change chemical structure o Reactants combine to make products which have different properties than the originals o Types Synthesis reactions – two or more atoms or elements combined to make something bigger; anabolic reactions Decomposition – big things are broken down into smaller ones; bonds in a large molecule are broke into yield smaller ones; catabolic Number of atoms isn’t changed; everything is balanced Exchange – synthesis and decomposition reactions happen at the same time Oxidation-reduction – “redox”; the transfer of electrons When something gives up an electron, it is oxidized When something accepts an electron, it is reduced Electron transport chain depends on oxidation and reduction Reversible – end product of the reaction can become the reactants for a breakdown; can revert back to the original Amount of stability determines which direction the reaction will go Exergonic – the products have less energy than the reactants; catabolic; oxidative; energy is liberated to do something else Endergonic – energy absorbing reactions; products are at a higher energy level than the reactants Collision theory o Explains how and why chemical reactions occur o All particles are in constant motion and continually collide with one another o If collision provides activation energy, bonds are broken or formed Atoms will ultimately bump into each other Activation energy o Collision energy needed for a chemical reaction o Amount of energy needed to rearrange the electrons of a molecule Factors affecting chemical reactions o Velocity of colliding particles Temperature – heat makes molecules move faster The faster things are moving, the higher velocity o Energy of colliding particles Temperature Size – smaller particles move faster than bigger ones; more collisions; big particle will have more energy when it hits o Concentration of colliding particles o Catalysts Something that speeds up a chemical reaction but doesn’t get used up in the chemical reaction Enzymes in the human body