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Anatomy & Physiology Notes Week 1

by: Courtney Luber

Anatomy & Physiology Notes Week 1 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 > Anatomy Physiology Notes Week 1
Courtney Luber
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About this Document

These notes cover what was discussed in the lectures on 8/23 and 8/25. Powerpoints include the overview and chemistry.
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John R Cummings
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology




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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 08/25/16
 Anatomy o Greek  Anatome – dissect  Only way to figure out what was inside the body was to cut open the outside of the body o Definition - the study of structure and the relationship among structures  Looking at what the parts are, not what they do o Subdivisions – approaches to studying anatomy  Gross anatomy – macroscopic; big things  Bone, muscles, big organs (heart, lungs, brain)  Regional anatomy – looking at a specific region of the body  Thoracic, abdominal, leg, etc  Used by advanced med school students with specialties  Systemic anatomy – looking at specific organ systems  Cardiovascular, muscular, skeletal, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, digestive, etc  Surface anatomy – study of form and markings on the surface of the body  Has led to forensic reconstruction  Includes parts that are visible with the naked eye  Microscopic anatomy – things we can’t see without a microscope  Parts that are smaller than ½ mm  Cytology – the study of cells  Histology – the study of tissues  Developmental anatomy – the study of changes in anatomy from the fertilized egg until death  Embryology – deals with the time of fertilization until birth  Pathological anatomy – study of change to structure due to disease  Radiographic anatomy – the study of structure using socialized imaging technology  Medical imaging o X-ray – passing short light waves through the body; gamma radiation  Things that absorb the most light energy show up the brightest (bones)  Can see broken bones, tumors, abnormal calcification o CT scan – computerized tomography; using light energy in sections; basically an x-ray in different sections; can break apart an x-ray  Use for brain scans  looking for tumor, additional nasal tissue, etc o Xenon CT – xenon is a gas that is radioactively labeled; gives off gamma radiation; colorized CT  Patient inhales xenon gas  lungs  bloodstream  delivered to most active tissue  Can diagnose what’s happening in the brain without cutting open  Computer interprets the xenon o DSR scan – dynamic spacial reconstruction; light energy is being used to take pictures all the way around the body so we get a 3D image that we can rotate o DSA – digital subtraction angiography (angiography = related to blood vessels)  Before picture  inject contrast medium (dye)  take second picture  Use computer to subtract everything from first picture from second picture  Can diagnose blood vessel blockages, concussions, thrombosis, etc o PET scan – positron emission tomography; injecting a radioisotope into body  Radioisotope travels and cells that are most active will pick it up  Look at metabolic processes  Can look at Parkinson’s disease (basal nuclei, which fine tune muscle contractions, don’t work, so patient gets tremors) o All of the above use light energy o Ultrasound – uses sound waves; high frequency sound travels through the body and is picked up by the receiver  Used to look at embryological development  Can do a 3D ultrasound, or 4D ultrasound o MRI – magnetic residence imagery; uses magnetic waves  Magnetic energy passes through the body and it becomes polarized  Uses hydrogen ions  most prevalent in soft tissue  No bone tissue shows up  Great at showing soft tissue  see if an ACL is torn, etc  Sometimes computer can go back in and put the bone tissue back in o MRS – magnetic residence spectrography; use a pulse of magnetic field but it goes after ions other than water  Kidneys – full of sodium  Muscle – full of calcium o M2A – pill that has a camera in it; digital camera with light source; takes pictures as it moves through the digestive tract; pictures get stored on a small SD card  Battery light in camera is less than 18 hours  Light burns out around the small intestine  Physiology o Greek  Physis - function  Logos – study of o Definition – the study of functions of body parts  Includes chemical and physical processes o The Big Integration  Structure can dictate function  Function can regulate structure o Levels of organization  Chemical  All of the chemicals that are essential to life and what roles they play in our body  i.e. How does bicarbonate function in our body?  Cellular  The cell is the structural and functional unit of life  Cells are comprised of a bunch of different chemicals  Tissues  Two or more cells working collectively toward a specific task  Neurons function together to make the nervous system work  Organ  Two or more tissues working collectively toward a specific task  Organ system  Two or more organs working together toward a specific system o i.e. muscular system, nervous system, digestive system, etc  Organismic level  An organism’s entire body  Life processes o Living things possess certain attributes o Limiting boundaries – barrier for humans is skin  The inside of our bodies have a different environment than the outside o Excitability – the ability to sense change within or around our bodies  We respond to stimuli  i.e. when the light goes down, the pupils in our eyes will dilate o conductivity – connecting one part to the other o metabolism- the sum total of all of the chemical reactions that occur in our body  catabolism – breakdown pathways (i.e. we eat a meal and break it down chemically)  anabolism - we build things up (i.e. we take amino acids in our body and build them up to make muscle) o digestion – intake and breakdown of food o excretion – the elimination of waste  fecal, urine, sweat, exhale o movement – the contraction of muscle  locomotion – movement of skeletal movement  pump blood- cardiac muscles o growth – an increase in size; increase in number of cells; increase in size of cells  born with all of the muscle cells we will ever have – muscle cells just grow as we age  born with all of the adipose cells we will ever have as well o reproduction – cells reproduce themselves – mitosis; the production of new individuals – procreation  Survival needs (need to have in the correct amount) o nutrients – all of the chemical substances that are used for energy or cell production  get our nutrients from the food we eat o oxygen – electron acceptor for cellular respiration o water – body is made of between 60-80%  get water from the things we drink and the food we eat  we are also constantly losing water  sweating, urination  constant water balance o normal body temperature – 37 degrees C is the human body temp; 96.8 degrees F  below 95 degrees metabolic system slows down  above 99 degrees and proteins start to denature o atmospheric pressure – without this we couldn’t breathe; changes with elevation  homeostasis o homios – like o stasis – the same o “standing still” in Greek o Definition – condition of stable internal body environment  Never constant, rather a dynamic equilibrium o We need all of our survival needs to be at optimal level o Requirements for homestasis  When survival needs are at optimum  Stress o Old French  Estresse – narrowness o Definition – any stimulus causing an imbalance in the internal environment  All stimuli cause a response, not all disturb homeostasis  Can be internal and external stresses  Stress regulation o Nervous system - we detect stress messages and send electrical messages to counteract  Integrator-brain or spinal cord, affector o Endocrine system - chemical messages (hormones)  Feedback systems o Anglo saxon – british empire  Fedan – food  Baec – back o Greek  Systema o Definition – any circular situation where info about the status of something is continually report back to a central control region  Feedback is a circular system  Info about anything – irritation in bladder, skin detecting that it is warm, etc  Central control region is usually the CNS (brain/spinal cord) o general terms  1. Stimulus produces change in variable  2. Change detected by receptor  3. Input: info sent along different pathway to control center  4. Output: info sent along efferent pathway to effector  5. Response of effector feeds back to influence magnitude of stimulus and returns variable to homeostasis o Negative feedback – response of the feedback cycle is to reverse the initial condition  i.e. thermostat – equilibrium is 75 degrees, if it gets hotter than that, the AC comes on and reverses the condition  i.e. blood glucose is too low, so our body reverses the condition o positive feedback – the response is to intensify the condition & we continue to intensify the condition until the stimulus is gone  i.e. child birth, consumption of alcohol affects the brain which says send more alcohol  throw up Chemistry  Matter o Latin – materia (timber, substance) o Definition – anything that occupies space and has mass o Is composed of chemical elements  Elements o Substances that cannot be decomposed into smaller substances by ordinary chemical reactions  Chemical elements o 118 chemical elements recognized  92 occur naturally  Other 16 are manmade in particle accelerators  Not very stable o Human body contains 24  O, C, H & N = 96%  These plus Ca & P = 99%  Others called trace elements – the other elements that occur but not in very high quantities  Can’t have any nervous contraction without sodium or potassium  States of matter o Solid – form of matter that has a definitive shape  i.e. crystal, teeth, bones  all atoms that make up matter are constantly moving, but solids have atoms that move most slowly o liquid – assume the shape of the container that holds them  can go from a solid to liquid by changing the speed of the atoms  atoms moving faster  i.e. plasma takes the shape of the blood vessels that contain them; urine takes the shape of the bladder which contains it o *solids and liquids have a definite volume* o Gas – no definitive shape or volume  Expands to the volume of the container  Highest speed of molecular motion  i.e. air in lungs take the shape of lungs; when we breathe, lungs expand and gas inside expands as well  Energy o Greek  en – within  ergon – work o definition – the ability to do work; the ability to put matter into motion  energy allows molecules to move o forms of energy  potential – stored energy  i.e. a rollercoaster car sitting on top of a hill  kinetic – the energy of motion  i.e. a rollercoaster going down a hill  chemical – the energy that is present in chemical bonds (the bonds between elements)  if we break a bond between elements, we release energy; when we create a bond, we take energy  electrical – the energy that results from the flow of charged particles  charged particles in body; as particles move around, it creates electrical energy  sodium and potassium are most important charged particles  mechanical – the energy of motion; the energy required for movement  i.e. wind turbine – wind causes turbines to spin; mechanical energy converted to electrical energy  electromagnetic – energy that travels in waves  light and sound waves  “radiant” energy – heat/temperature travels in waves also; light and sound plus heat  Energy conversions o Thermodynamics  First law states that energy cannot be created or destroyed  energy is transformed from one type to another  Second law – none of the transfers is 100% efficient; energy gets lost to the environment primarily as heat  Changing the motion of molecules  changes the form of energy  changes the state of matter  Atom o Greek  Atomos – indivisible o Definition – the smallest unit of matter that can enter into a chemical reaction o All elements are composed of atoms o Atoms allow elements to be reactive o Composition  Nucleus – center of the atom; where most of the mass of the atom exists  Protons – positively charged particles o Number of protons in the nucleus is equal to the number of electrons floating around  Neutrons – neutrally charged particles  *charge is not equal to mass*  Electrons – negatively charged particles o Atomic number  The number of protons that exists of the nucleus  Protons = electrons  So, we know the number of electrons as well o Atomic mass  Sum of the number of protons plus the number of neutrons o Isotope – atoms that have the same number of protons and electrons, but different numbers of neutrons  Unstable and usually radioactive o Periodic table  Developed by Russian chemist  He put atoms or elements that have similar properties close to each other  Noble gases – nonreactive  Each element has an atomic symbol which is an abbreviation for what it is  Energy levels o Regions in which the electrons move around the nucleus o Identified as orbitals or shells  Chemical definition - the region around the nucleus where the electron could be found most of the time o Each has a maximum number of electrons it can hold o First shell can hold two, others can hold eight  Valence electrons o The number of extra or deficient electrons in the outermost energy level o Reactivity, the ability to engage in chemical reactions, is determined by valence electrons o Deficiency or excessiveness determines how the element is going to work  Chemical reactions o Combining or breaking apart of atoms forming new products with different properties from the originals o Exchange of outer electrons to produce new products that have different properties than the originals o Atoms always try to fill their outermost energy level  Accomplished by giving up, accepting, or sharing electrons  Molecule o Combination of two or more atoms from a chemical reaction  Compound o Substance that can be broken down into two or more others by a chemical means  Always contain two or more different elements  Chemical bonding o Attractive forces that hold together the atoms of a molecule o Types of bonds  Ionic – opposites attract; positive and negative charge are attracted  Ion – charged substance; extra or deficient electron; positively or negatively charged particles which result when an atom gains or loses electrons o Positive charge – electron deficiency  Cation – electron donor; number of protons exceeds number or electrons o Negative charge – extra electron  Anion – electron acceptor; number of protons is less than number of electrons  Results in polar compounds  Covalent – atoms share the electrons  Single covalent bond – share one bond of electrons  Double covalent bond – share two pairs of electrons; stronger  Triple covalent bond – share three pairs of electrons; strongest  Result in nonpolar molecules  Polarity determines whether or not the particle can get through the wall of a cell  Can have partially polar covalent bonds o Electronegativity  Hydrogen – attractive force between atoms; not really a bond; very weak bond that exists due to partial negativity  Between a hydrogen bond and something else  Usually nitrogen and oxygen  “bond to one but attracted to another”  Chemical reactions o Making or breaking of bonds o Number of atoms remains the same but are rearranged o Can change chemical structure o Reactants combine to make products which have different properties than the originals o Types  Synthesis reactions – two or more atoms or elements combined to make something bigger; anabolic reactions  Decomposition – big things are broken down into smaller ones; bonds in a large molecule are broke into yield smaller ones; catabolic  Number of atoms isn’t changed; everything is balanced  Exchange – synthesis and decomposition reactions happen at the same time  Oxidation-reduction – “redox”; the transfer of electrons  When something gives up an electron, it is oxidized  When something accepts an electron, it is reduced  Electron transport chain depends on oxidation and reduction  Reversible – end product of the reaction can become the reactants for a breakdown; can revert back to the original  Amount of stability determines which direction the reaction will go  Exergonic – the products have less energy than the reactants; catabolic; oxidative; energy is liberated to do something else  Endergonic – energy absorbing reactions; products are at a higher energy level than the reactants  Collision theory o Explains how and why chemical reactions occur o All particles are in constant motion and continually collide with one another o If collision provides activation energy, bonds are broken or formed  Atoms will ultimately bump into each other  Activation energy o Collision energy needed for a chemical reaction o Amount of energy needed to rearrange the electrons of a molecule  Factors affecting chemical reactions o Velocity of colliding particles  Temperature – heat makes molecules move faster  The faster things are moving, the higher velocity o Energy of colliding particles  Temperature  Size – smaller particles move faster than bigger ones; more collisions; big particle will have more energy when it hits o Concentration of colliding particles o Catalysts  Something that speeds up a chemical reaction but doesn’t get used up in the chemical reaction  Enzymes in the human body


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