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BIOS 311 Week One Notes

by: Nicholas Petrusevski

BIOS 311 Week One Notes

Marketplace > Northern Illinois University > > BIOS 311 Week One Notes
Nicholas Petrusevski
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About this Document

These notes cover the main objectives that will be on the first lecture exam.
Class Notes
BIOS, Science




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicholas Petrusevski on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Northern Illinois University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.


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Date Created: 08/25/16
Tuesday, August 23, 2016 Anatomy 311 (Week 1 Notes) -Anatomical Position: -body upright -facing observer -fleet flat and directed forward -palms forward -Anterior: in front of or front surface -Posterior: in back of -Superior: toward head or above -Inferior: toward feet not head -Medial: toward midline (middle) of body -Lateral: away from midline (middle) of body -Proximal: closer attachment to trunk -Distal: further from attachment to trunk (Reference Planes) 1. Frontal 2. Sagittal 3. Transverse 1 Tuesday, August 23, 2016 (Body Wall Vs. Body Cavity) Body Wall: exterior body, limbs, and diaphragm (Outside) Body Cavity: thorax, abdomen, pelvis (inside) (Main Function of Bones) -supports soft tissues and organs -protection and joint movements -mineral and fat storage -Hemopoiesis (blood cell formation) (Axial and Appendicular skeleton) -axial skeleton makes up our central axis and consists of the following bones: skull, vertebrae, ribs and sternum. (80 bones) -The appendicular skeleton consists of the limbs and girdles. (126 bones) *206 bones total (Bone Development) 2 Tuesday, August 23, 2016 1. Endochondral ossification: within cartilage upper and lower limbs, pelvis, most facial bones, ends of clavicle 2. Intramembranous ossification: within membranes; ex: flat bones of skulls, zygomatic, maxilla, mandible, center of clavicle (Bone Types) -Compact bone: deer or cortical -solid external walls -high strength and rigidity -HAS osteons -usually form on outside -Spongy Bone:trabecular or cancellous -helps form internal lattice work of the bone -great for shock absorption -contains NO osteons -usually form on inside (Roles of the Muscular System) -body movement & utilizing joints -maintenance of posture…for example: standing -temperature regulation -regulation of fluid and solid movements…sphincters….gastrointestinal tract + circulatory system 3 Tuesday, August 23, 2016 (3 Types of Muscle Tissues) 1. Skeleteal Muscles: -pulls on bones -Epimysium: connective tissue layer, surrounds each muscle -Fascicle: a bundle of fibers/cells -Perimysium: surrounds each fascicle -40-50% of adult body weight…muscles you wake up and “feel” -over 700 -generate tension -under voluntary control 2. Cardiac Muscle: -only in heart -special: form visceral structures 3. Smooth Muscle: -all over body… follicles, blood vessels, respiratory, circulatory, digestive and reproductive tracts -special: form visceral structures (Origin And Insertion) -Origin: the least mobile or proximal attachment -Insertion: the more mobile or distal attachment *muscles can only pull, NOT push 4 Tuesday, August 23, 2016 (Major Movements of Spine) -Flexion: anterior-posterior planes, reduces angle between elements -Hyper (Extension): increases angle - extend beyond normal limits *we have a lot more freedom with Flexion -lateral flexion: vertebral column bends to one side (cervical and thoracic regions) … why can’t we do this very far? Because rib cage is in the way -Movement examples: rotation = axial rotation “twisting” (Superficial and Deep Muscles) -superficial: not true back muscles -trapezius, Latissimus dorsi, thoracolumbar fascia (powerful movers of arm) -Deep: true back muscles -erector spinae (superifcial deep) -transversospinalis -serratus posterior -serratus posterior 5


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