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BSCI201, Chapter 1 (The human body: an orientation) Notes

by: mehrnazighani Notetaker

BSCI201, Chapter 1 (The human body: an orientation) Notes BSCI201

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These notes covers all the concepts of chapter 1 thoroughly. This is the combination of class notes and textbook notes.
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1
Justicia Opoku-Edusei
Class Notes
Science, anatomy, Anatomy& Physiology, Biology, Chemistry, Physiology, cells, structures, Anatomical terms, anatomic directions, Anatomical Terminology




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by mehrnazighani Notetaker on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI201 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Justicia Opoku-Edusei in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views.


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Date Created: 08/25/16
Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation  by Mehrnaz Ighani . Anatomy: study of the structure of the body parts and their relationships to one another . Physiology: study of the function of the body parts . Subdivisions of Anatomy: 1. Gross/ Macroscopic Anatomy: study of large, visible structures  Regional Anatomy: All structures in a particular area of the human body  System Anatomy: Analyzes one organ system  Surface Anatomy: Looks at internal structures and how they relate to the skin 2. Microscopic Anatomy: Study of small structures that can’t be seen with the naked eye  Cytology: the study of cells  Histology: the study of tissues 3. Developmental Anatomy: Study of the anatomical and physiological throughout life  Embryology: study of developments before birth  When studying anatomy one must be able to observe, manipulate, examine, and know  anatomical terminology . Subdivisions of Physiology: o Based on organ systems  o Based on cellular and molecular levels of the human body  When studying physiology you have to understand physical and chemical principles . Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function: Function ALWAYS reflects  structure . Structural Organization: (Fig. 1.1) Chemical ­> Cellular ­> Tissue ­> Organ ­> Organ system ­> Organismal  Chemical level: atoms, molecules, and organelles  Cellular level: single cell  Tissue level: a group of similar and specific cells  Organ level: contains at least 2 or more tissue types  Organ system level: organs that work closely together   Organismal level: all organs work together to maintain homeostasis . Requirements for life:  Maintaining boundaries   Movement  Responsiveness   Digestion  Metabolism  Excretion  Growth   Reproduction . Maintaining boundaries: separation between internal and external environments must exist  (Ex. Plasma membrane and skin)  Movement: movement of body parts via skeletal muscles and movement of substances via  cardiac and smooth muscles  Contractility: movement at the cellular level       . Responsiveness: ability to sense and respond to stimuli (Ex. reflex)       . Digestion: breakdown of food and absorption of nutrients       . Metabolism: chemical reactions that occur in the cells (Ex. catabolism & anabolism)       . Excretion: removal of waste from metabolism and digestion (Ex. CO2 and urea)       . Growth: increase in size of a body part/ organism       . Reproduction: at the cellular level, reproduction means division of cells and at the                         organismal level, reproduction means production of offspring  Humans are multicellular and all cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival  needs. . There are 10 organ systems:  (Fig. 1.2)   Integumentary system  Nervous system  Endocrine system  Digestive system  Respiratory system   Urinary system  Skeletal system  Muscular system   Cardiovascular system   Lymphatic system   NOTE: The reproductive system is an organ system but it is not required to maintain  homeostasis . Integumentary system: o Synthesizes vitamin D o Houses sensory receptors  o Contains the largest organ of the body: Skin o Protects internal tissues . Skeletal system:  o Stores minerals o Forms red blood cells o Supports body organs . Muscular system:  o Contractibility o Heat production  o Movement o Stability o Maintain balance and posture . Nervous system:  o Gathers sensory input and forms motor output . Endocrine system:  o Glands produce hormones that regulate the activity of cells and organs o Regulates growth, metabolism, and sexual function . Cardiovascular system: o Provides nutrients through the blood o Dispose of metabolic wastes o Hormone delivery  o Transports O2 and CO2 . Lymphatic system: o Removes interstitial fluid from tissues o Transports white blood cells o Body’s defense mechanism against infection and disease . Respiratory system:  o Take in O2 and expel CO2 o Smelling o Air vibrating the vocal cords creates sound . Digestive system:  o Digestion of food and absorption of macromolecules, vitamins, and minerals o Eliminate undigested food through the anus . Urinary system:  o Balances the pH of the blood o Regulates electrolytes and water o Eliminates nitrogenous waste through the urinary bladder . Reproductive system:  o Male reproductive system: Produces male sex hormone and sperm o Female reproductive system: Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones and  mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn . Survival needs:  Nutrients  O2  Water  Normal body temperature  Appropriate atmospheric pressure  Homeostasis: Maintenance of stable internal conditions despite continuous change in  environment o Nervous and endocrine systems are the main controllers o A dynamic state of equilibrium, always readjusting as needed o Variables: Factors that can change (Ex. Blood sugar) Homeostatic control of variables:  1. Receptor 2. Control center 3. Effector o Receptor (sensor): monitors the environment and responds to stimuli o Control center: receives input from receptor and determines appropriate response. It also  determines set point at which variable is maintained o Effector: receives output from the control center and provides the means to respond.  Respond increases stimulus + feedback) or decreases stimulus (­ feedback).   + feedback:  ­ Increases the original stimulus ­ Controls infrequent events that don’t need continuous readjustment ­ Ex: Blood clotting  ­ feedback: ­ Most used feedback in the body ­ Decreases or shuts off original stimulus ­ Ex: Regulation of body temperature . Homeostatic Imbalance:  ­ Increased risk of disease ­ Contributes aging ­ Control systems become less efficient ­ If  ­ feedback mechanisms become overwhelmed, destructive + feedback  mechanisms take over . Anatomical terms:   Anatomical position: Feet slightly apart, palms facing forward with the thumbs pointing  away from the body  Directional terms: Describe one body structure in relation to another body structure. It’s  ALWAYS based on standard anatomical position . Directional terms: (Table 1.1)  Superior (cranial): toward the head, upper  Inferior (caudal): toward the feet, lower  Anterior: front (same as ventral)  Posterior: back (same as dorsal)  Medial: toward the midline of a structure  Intermediate: between a more medial and a more lateral structure  Lateral: away from the midline of a structure  Proximal: toward the trunk  Distal: away from the trunk   Superficial: nearer the body surface  Deep: farther away from the body surface Examples:  The neck is superior to the abdomen  The stomach is medial to the arm The heart is intermediate to the lungs The ankle is distal to the knee The knee is inferior to the abdomen . Regional terms: label specific areas within the body divisions 2 major divisions: 1. Axial (head, neck, and trunk) 2. Appendicular (upper and lower extremities)  . Body planes: surfaces along which body or structures may be cut for anatomical study  3 most common planes: ­ Sagittal plane ­ Frontal (coronal) plane ­ Transversal (horizontal) plane . Sections: cuts made along a body plane  ­ Ex. A transversal cut results in a transversal section  Sagittal plane: lengthwise plane that divides a structure into right and left sections   Parasagittal plane: sagittal plane that divide the body into 2 unequal halves  Midsagittal plane: sagittal plane that divide the body into 2 equal halves  Frontal plane: lengthwise plane that divides a structure into superior and inferior  sections  Oblique section: results of cuts at an angle other than 90 degrees (Fig. 1.8) Body cavities: contain well­ordered arrangements of internal organs that protect the organs  within them and prevent the spread of infection .2 sets of cavities: 1.  Dorsal body cavity 2. Ventral body cavity  Dorsal body cavity: (Fig. 1.9)  1. Cranial cavity (brain)  2. Vertebral body cavity (spinal cord)   Ventral body cavity: 1. Thoracic cavity  2. Abdominopelvic cavity ­ Houses the internal organs called the Viscerae  NOTE: The 2 subdivisions are separated by the diaphragm  Thoracic cavity: 1. 2 pleural cavities (houses the lungs) 2. Mediastinum: contains pericardial cavity and surrounds other thoracic organs 3. Pericardial cavity (houses the heart)  Abdominopelvic cavity:  1. Abdominal cavity (contains stomach, liver, pancreas, and etc.) 2. Pelvic cavity (contains kidneys, urinary bladder, and etc.) . Membranes of the ventral body cavity:  Serosa aka serous membrane: double membraned layer that covers the surface of the  ventral body cavity ­ Parietal serosa: lines the walls of the ventral body cavity ­ Visceral serosa: covers the organs within the ventral body cavity NOTE: 2 membranes are separated with serous fluid that’s secreted by both  membranes . Abdominopelvic has 4 quadrants and 9 regions:    4 quadrants: (Fig. 1.11) ­ Left upper quadrant ­ Right upper quadrant  ­ Left lower quadrant ­ Right lower quadrant  9 regions: (Fig. 1.12) ­ Right hypochondriac region ­ Epigastric region ­ Left hypochondriac region ­ Right lumbar region ­ Umbilical region ­ Left lumbar region ­ Right iliac (inguinal) region ­ Hypogastric region ­ Left iliac (inguinal) region  In addition to 2 main body cavities, there are other smaller cavities: ­ Oral and digestive cavities ­ Nasal cavity ­ Orbital cavities (eye sockets) ­ Middle ear cavities ­ Synovial cavities (joints) Works Cited Lindsey, Jerri K., Katja Hoehn, and Elaine Nicpon Marieb. Human Anatomy & Physiology, 9th            Edition Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn. Boston, MA: Pearson, 2013. Print.


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