Early US History Week 2 Notes
Early US History Week 2 Notes HI 1063
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Greer on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HI 1063 at Mississippi State University taught by Peter Messer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
8/23/16 8/25/16 US History • How was life fro Native Americans changing through 1500? • In what ways were Native ideas brought about and institutions of society, religion, and politics similar or different to European nations? • Native North America 1450 very diverse Native Americans arrived around 25,00012,000 years ago believed to have first settled in the west • Central Plains Clovis: 10,0008000 BCE • probably hunters (wooly mammoths, bison) • named after specific spearpoints • climate shift occurs and Pleistocene Megafauna begin to die out Folsom people: 85005000 BCE • very similar to Clovis • more fluting on spearpoints • buffalo jumps run buffalo off cliff as a form of “hunting” • more political and social organization than Clovis Dry period: 50002000 BCE • drought • migrations east to River Valley off the Plains west to front range • small animal hunting • agriculture front range of Rockies • began to take advantage of a series of microclimates • very intune with geography and climate • adapting! • hunting 8/23/16 8/25/16 US History drive lanes • rock walls built to trap animals • Climate change is causing people to change and adapt to the environment. • Climate Change Persists wet period: 8001220 • high point of population on the Plains dry period: 12001500 • people retreat from Plains to the River Valley • Pawnee • Arikaras agriculture • 3 sisters 1. corn Mexico; arrives in US around 300 BCE; staple 2. beans good source of protein and carbs 3. squash good source of protein and carbs • caused people to hunt less; also caused population increase • friendlier to a more centralized political system • still need hunters and farmers men= hunters women= farmers • responsible for half the food • owns crops and land • VERY different from Europe men own everything in Europe women are treated like property • since they own crops and land, they also have political influence • Continental Trade Goods links Native Americans textiles traded for buffalo meat buffalo meat and robes traded for copper trade brought in disease, technology, and steel 8/23/16 8/25/16 US History • Hohokam: 8001100 Phoenix, Arizona area built canals around Salt River Valley rather sophisticated built big houses and ball courts • proves political and social organization the canals dry out (drought), people try to take other people’s canals, therefore war breaks out • Cahokia: 7001200 largest city in North America (25,000 people) but still relatively small compared to other major cities around the world drought destroys city • no more farming; fighting over useable farmland trade center • spread of disease • Indians on Arrival rise of peoples • Iroquois Confederation • Creeks, Choctaw, Shawnee • generally the older groups demise and new groups emerge • Iroquois 5 peoples and 5 clans> lead by women mythic leaders • Deganawidah spiritual leader, “medicine man”, created a peace treaty between 5 peoples of the Iroquois • Hiawatha Deganawidah’s little brother very violent • because of violence, created Confederation • Iroquois government is decentralized war chief 8/23/16 8/25/16 US History hunt chief camp chief • VERY different from highly centralized government of Europe • Iroquois government only recommends people do things; no force • Indian religion animistic animals and man have equal spiritual power; land as well; man can control animals and animals can control man balance no good and evil; everything is in balance pragmatic spiritual leaders • European colonization technology • improved sailing ships Arab: lanteen sail Portuguese: caravel • mapping currents wind Portuguese exploration • pioneers in mapping and ship design • first nation to move out into the Atlantic to look for new trade routes (India, China) • Cape Bojador: 1434 • Cape of Good Hope: 1488 • Sao Tome: 1471 uninhabited sugar will grow laborers (slaves) from West Africa plantation style Europe learns about sugar, slaves, and plantation 8/23/16 8/25/16 US History • Africa old trade routes are inefficient, dangerous, and expensive Africans know their advantages with Europe people that don’t usually trade get the chance to West Africa • gold • slaves • characterized by a bunch of small states that are constantly competing less about controlling land and ore about controlling people (slaves) slaves serve in armies, work as traders, servants of the king, and work on plantations • small gap between slave and slave owner • paths for freedom • diverse • Spain centralized by war (monarch) surplus population (soldiers were there after war) religious mission (spread Catholicism) money??? • Conquest of the Indies Columbus: 1492 • 10,000 miles off about the size of the world • goes to Portugal= denied • goes to England= denied • goes to Spain= agrees to fund trip • finds “Indians” on his journey (Tainos) Indians are struck by Columbus’s steel, clothes, etc. Columbus sees a workforce in the Indians 8/23/16 8/25/16 US History • doesn’t find big cities or trade routes like there were supposed to be in India (HE WAS IN THE WRONG PLACE) finds gold • Encomienda labor institution land to leaders right to use Indian labor • protect Tainos have rival/war • convert encomendaros • Black Legend disease 14921514: population went from millions to hundreds of thousands mass depopulation • Conquest of Mexico Aztec Empire 13th or 14th century • Tenochtitlan central Mexico, capital of Aztec Empire • a lot of cities • very warlike, very commercial • Tlaxcalan only part in center that’s not conquered flowery wars individual combat, winners take losers back for human sacrifice • nonlethal fighting technique and technology • Hernan Cortez: 1519 Spanish moves to Caribbean, ends up in east Mexico Montezuma sends gold to impress the Spanish • has opposite effect • Cortez moves into the Aztec Empire runs into Tlaxcalans and they form and ally move into Tenochtitlan and eventually take over 8/23/16 8/25/16 US History Malinche allies • sold 3 times into slavery • picks up a little Spanish from being a slave • used as translator technology • steel • horses • dogs disease • small pox devastates population depreciates morale • North America Cabeza de Vaca/Narváez: 15281536 • try to find gold in Florida • unsuccessful DeSoto: 15931542 • tried to find old in MS • unsuccessful • killed many Indians Coronado • no gold • many Indians dead • Pirates choke point • place to steal gold English pirates • best pirates highlight potential of new world • Fishing grounds Newfoundland 8/23/16 8/25/16 US History Catholics can’t eat meat on Friday so they eat fish Europe often fished out fish trade starts the fur trade Indians trade old, worn out furs • useless to them, valuable to Europeans
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