Human Growth and Development Week 2 Notes
Human Growth and Development Week 2 Notes EPY 2513
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Greer on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EPY 2513 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Abernathy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
8/22/16 8/24/16 Human Growth and Development Chapter 1 • The LifeSpan Perspective development is multidirectional • over time, human characteristics change in every direction • critical period must happen at certain time or it wont happen at all • sensitive period more sensitive to development (learning a language at a young age) development is multicontextual • historical context cohort people a few years younger and a few years older than you; basically a group of people who travel through life with you • socioeconomic context socioeconomic status (SES) 1. education 2. occupation 3. where you live 4. hobbies and interests development is multicultural • culture ethnicity or ethnic group (language, religion, etc.) • social construction race (white, black, etc.) • learning within a culture: Vygotsky development is plastic • simultaneously incorporates two facts people can change over time new behavior depends partly on what has already happened • Learn the difference between a microsystem and mesosystem • Theories of Human Development 8/22/16 8/24/16 Human Growth and Development psychoanalytic theory • theory proposes that irrational, unconscious drives and motives often originating in childhood, underlie in human behavior. • Freud (18561994) proposes five psychosexual stages during which sensual satisfaction is linked to developmental needs and conflicts • Erik Erikson (19021994) described eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmental crisis behaviorism • John Watson (18781958) learning theory conditioning • classical conditioning (Pavlov’s dogs) also called respondent conditioning Ivan Pavlov (18491936) • operant conditioning (give and take to shape behavior) also called instrumental conditioning B.F. Skinner (19041990) • social learning theory Albert Bandura (1925) • cognitive theory proposes thoughts and expectations profoundly affect actions, attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions Jean Piaget • humanism (self growth) Abraham Maslow (19081970) • evolutionary theory (genetics, survival) 8/22/16 8/24/16 Human Growth and Development Charles Darwin • Using the Scientific Method scientific observation • requires researchers to record behavior systematically and objectively experiments • establish casual relationships among variables variables • independent variable (researcher controls) • dependent variable (results of study) groups • experimental group (gets independent variable) • comparison (control) group (does not get independent variable) survey • includes information collected from a large number of people through interview, questionnaire, or some other means • Studying Development Over the LifeSpan basic research designs • crosssectional research 2 groups, 1 experiment • longitudinal research 1 group, multiple experiments • crosssequential research both combined • Cautions and Challenges from Science correlations • a correlation exists between 2 variables if one variable is more (or less) likely to occur when the other does • positive correlation same direction • negative correlation different direction • zero correlation not related • Ethics ensure that participation is voluntary, confidential, and harmless 8/22/16 8/24/16 Human Growth and Development ensure that participants understand the research procedures and any risks involved promote research accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness Chapter 2 • The beginning of life DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) • molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins chromosomes • molecules of DNA zygote fusion of sperm and egg gamete single reproductive cell (sperm, egg) • Genetic variations and similarities genotype • an organism’s genetic inheritance or genetic potential phenotype • the observable characteristics of an organism including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits • The Human Genome genome • similarity between 2 people: 99.5% • similarity between humans and chimpanzees: 98% • similarity between humans and other mammals: 90% Human Genome Project • found “only” about 20,00023,000 genes in humans 23rd pair • male: XY • female: XX • Twins monozygotic (identical) twins • originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development • same genotype but slight variations in phenotype are possible due to environmental influences dizygotic (fraternal) twins • result from fertilization of two separate eggs by two separate sperm • dizygotic twins have hlaf their genes in common and occur twice as often as monozygotic twins • incidence is genetic and varies by ethnicity and age 8/22/16 8/24/16 Human Growth and Development • From zygote to newborn three main periods of prenatal development • germinal period 2 weeks zygote begins development and division • embryonic period 6 weeks facial features form extremities and major systems “get in place” 2nd longest period • fetal period 9th week until birth longest period genitals form greatest brain growth • age of viability 22 weeks; born before won’t live life is possible but not probable • Birth labor begins • average duration for first born: 12 hours • quicker labor for laterborn babies Agar scale • quick assessment of newborns heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes • completed twice (1 minute and 5 minutes after birth) • score of 0, 1, or 2 in each category • desired score: 7 or above • Problems and solutions chromosomal miscounts • about one in every 200 births, an infant is born with 45, 47, or even 48 or 49 chromosomes • Down’s Syndrome is most common (trisomy21) • about 1 in every 500 infants is born with only one sex chromosome (no Y) or with three or more *check low birth weight chart • Harm to fetus teratogen • poor drinking water • poor air quality • medicines behavioral teratogen • born normal • ADD, ADHD, autism
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