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Intro to Psychology - Chapter 1

by: Shelby Miles

Intro to Psychology - Chapter 1 PSY-P 101

Marketplace > Indiana University > Psychology > PSY-P 101 > Intro to Psychology Chapter 1
Shelby Miles

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These notes cover the material from Chapter 1 in our textbook, regarding the history of psychology.
Introductory Psychology 1
Lisa Thomassen
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Miles on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-P 101 at Indiana University taught by Lisa Thomassen in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology 1 in Psychology at Indiana University.

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Date Created: 08/25/16
Psychology P101 – Chapter 1 Book Notes  Intro o Psychology is the specific study of behavior and mind o They focus just as much on normal as abnormal behavior o To understand the abnormal, you must understand the normal o The context of the behavior is important  Defining and Describing Psychology o Psyche – soul or breathe + logos – study of something o Psychology is different from philosophy because it has an emphasis on the scientific method rather than just the mind o Observation – essential to scientific method o Mind = contents and processes of mental workings (thoughts, emotions, sensations) o Behavior = actions that can be observed and measured o Behavior can be directly measured, not the mind o What do psychologists do?  Clinical, applied, and research psychologists  Clinical – diagnoses and treats psychological problems  Counseling – working with relational and adjustment problems, not as much disorders  Psychiatrists – medical doctors, can prescribe medication  Applied – their goal is to use psychology principles to solve everyday issues o School psychologists o Industrial/organizational psychologist  Works in businesses to improve morale and help staff o Human factors psychologist  (deciding designs and engineering of new products, i.e. why stop lights are red and green, how to design stoves based on our natural instincts)  Research – do experiments to learn about behavior and mind o Biopsychologists – learn how biology impacts behavior o Cognitive psychologist – works on memory, learning, etc. o Personality psychologist – see how internal factors make people act the same way in different situations and see how people are different o Social psychologist – how we interact with each other o Developmental psychologist – how minds change over life span  The Science of Psychology: A brief history o Aristotle founded psychology (tabula rasa idea – blank tablet) in 384-322 B.C. o Empiricism – the idea that knowledge comes straight from experience o Mind and body: are they the same?  Rene Descartes said the mind and body are separate  First came up with the idea of reflexes  Not very influential o Nature and nurture: where does knowledge come from?  Nativism – certain kinds of knowledge and ideas are innate and we are born with them  Immanuel Kant said we were all born with certain thoughts and structure that determines how we see the world  Gestalt psychology – humans are born with a fixed way of seeing the world  Darwin’s Theory of Evolution (19 century) – said that we were all molecules until one day things started changing and over the course of billions of years, we became us.  Natural selection – survival of the fittest, those who are better at overcoming obstacles are the ones who are fit to live  People do what they do because they have been trained by generations of actions passed down to them  Nature happens via nurture (experience) – they have to have each other o The First Schools: psychology as science  Wilhelm Wundt – founder/father of psychology  Formerly medical doctor  Germany, University of Leipzig professor  First psychology lab (1879)  Believed that the best way to learn about the mind was to conduct research in labs  Structuralism – the belief that one should break the mind down into basic parts (like feelings and memories) in order to best understand it  Systematic introspection – the method structuralists used to measure mental events  It made people provide self-reports of their own internal experiences, using sounds, colors, tastes, etc.  Edward Titchener – one of Wundt’s students who came up with idea of four different types of flavors: sour, bitter, sweet, salty  He came to America, opened labs (first at Cornell), and established psychology as a field here  G. Stanley Hall = president of American Psychological Association (APA)  Functionalism – belief that the right way to understand the mind/behavior is to first learn about the functions and process of it  Function > content  William James - the mind is an ever-flowing stream  Behaviorism – (1910) Belief that self-reflection is not measurable enough and we should instead look at how the environment affects behavior  Emphasis on behavior and actions vs. immediate experience  John B. Watson was founder  B.F. Skinner was another famous follower of behaviorism o Freud and the Humanists: The Influence of the Clinic  Sigmund Freud – founder of psychoanalysis  Psychoanalysis – his theory of mind and system analysis that said that the mind but be extensively analyzed before any treatment can begin  Wanted to know how memories lead to behaviors, big on dream analysis and symbolism  Originally neurologist  Believed that many physical problems were actually psychological  He believed that human nature was dark and involved unconscious urges for sex and aggression (his theories frequently related to sex)  Thought that most actions are deeply rooted and subconscious o The First Women in Psychology  Mary Whiton Calkins – elected president of APA  Passed tests for her Ph.D. but was never given it because of gender  Major contributor in psychology (paired-associate learning)  Margaret Floy Washburn – first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology, 2 APA president  Helen Thompson Wooley – helped come up with idea of sex differences, breaking down female stereotypes  Ruth Howard – first black woman to earn Ph.D. in psychology  The Focus of Modern Psychology o Cognitive factors  21 century brought eclectic approach – more than one source or school of thought is more effective  Picking and choosing methods based on what is best for the clients  Cognitive revolution – 1950’s when people drifted away from strict schools of thought and became interested in fundamental problems of consciousness and internal mental processes  It was more measurable, used information processing systems to see how the brain processes outside information o Biological factors  Study capabilities have progressed greatly so we can watch individual cells and parts of the brain to see how they respond o Evolutionary psychology  A recent movement that seeks to identify exactly how our behaviors and thought processes have been affected by evolutionary influences  Says we were born with mental processes that guide our actions (these were also allegedly passed down through natural selection) o Cultural factors  Our shared values, ideals, and beliefs mold our behavior and actions  It’s important to psychology because by knowing about the person’s background, you gain insight on how their mind remembers, interacts, sees, thinks, and works altogether o Solving problems with an adaptive mind  We act the way we do for a reason, whether conscious or unconscious  Don’t just memorize, try to see how it applies to your life.


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