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Anatomical Kinesiology notes for week one

by: Annaliese Kehoe

Anatomical Kinesiology notes for week one HES207

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Anatomical Kinesiology > HES207 > Anatomical Kinesiology notes for week one
Annaliese Kehoe
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About this Document

These notes cover types of bones, cartilage, bone properties and joints.
Anatomical kinesiology (HES 207,Section 002)
Jennifer C Richards, PhD)
Class Notes
bone, type, Joints, Shapes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annaliese Kehoe on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HES207 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer C Richards, PhD) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Anatomical kinesiology (HES 207,Section 002) in Anatomical Kinesiology at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 08/25/16
Anatomical Kinesiology: HES 207 The Musculoskeletal System: The Skeletal Framework and its Movements  The Skeleton:  Functions: Provides support, muscle attachment (movement), protection  Creates an intricate network of levers: Fulcrum, bar-like body (lever), forces applied  Axial Skeleton: Skull, vertebra, ribs (comprised of 74 bones)  Appendicular Skeleton: Extremities, shoulder girdle, pelvis (comprised of 126 bones)  Adult: total of 206 bones after certain ones are fused together during growth  Types of Bones:  Long (purpose is movement): Shaft or body with a medullary canal and broad, knobby ends  Short (purpose is to transfer and absorb force): Relatively small, chunky, solid.  Flat (purpose is protection): Flat and plate-like  Sesamoid (purpose is a pulley): Encased in tendon (ex: patella)  Irregular (All others, multiple purposes): spinal column  Bone Properties:  Bone is living tissue, adapts to loads and forces applied to it o Osteoblasts- cells that build bone o Osteoclasts- cells that absorb bone  Two basic arrangements of the “hard stuff”: 1. Cortical/ compact bone: dense, low porosity, 5-30% nonmineralized tissue 2. Cancellous/ spongy bone: less dense, high porosity, 30-90% nonmineralized tissue  Most outer bone is cortical with cancellous underneath  Articular- Two bones coming together (cartilage)  Typical Long Bone Features:  Diaphysis: Long cylindrical shaft with cortical bone providing structure  Epiphysis: Ends of long bones with cancellous bone providing structure (proximal and distal)  Periosteum: Dense, fibrous membrane that lines the inside of the diaphysis  Medullary (marrow) Cavity: Inside diaphysis, containing yellow or fatty marrow.  Epiphyseal Plate: Growth plate, thin cartilage plate o Becomes a line at skeletal maturity  Articular (hyaline) cartilage: Covering the epiphysis to provide cushioning effect and reduce friction.  Cartilage:  Many types with variety of different features (elastic and recoil)  Fibrous: “Gel-Like” ground substance reinforced with collagen fibers  Hyaline: Bones meet together (articulate)  Synovial Fluid: reduces friction between bones  Bone Shapes:  3 categories: o To form joints o Attachment points for ligaments or tendons (Ligaments= bone to bone, Tendons= muscle to bone) (mechanical stress) o Cavities, depressions, openings, grooves  Condyle: Articulates with another bone  Epicondyle: Surface for attachment of muscle and ligaments  Tubercle: Small, bony nodule where muscle attaches  Tuberosity: Larger, rougher bony attachment site for muscle  Mechanical Axis of Bone:  Angle between mechanical axis and longitudinal axis is called Q- angle.  Straight line connects midpoint of the joint at one end of a bone with the midpoint of the joint at the other end.  The axis may lie outside the shaft (long axis)  Joints  Articulation: Connection of bones at a joint o Allows movement between surfaces of bones  3 classes according to structure and movement characteristics o Synarthrodial (no movement) o Amphiarthrodial (slightly movable) o Diarthrodial (highly mobile)  Synarthrodial: o Immovable joints o Sutures- skull o Gomphosis- teeth in mandible or maxilla o Firbrous joints o No joint cavity  Amphiarthrodial: o Slightly movable joints o No joint cavity  Syndesmosis- ligamentous  Synchondrosis- cartilaginous  Symphysis- fibro- cartilaginous  Diarthrodial: o Articular cavity (space) o Ligamentous capsule o Synovial membrane o Surfaces are smooth o Surfaces covered with cartilage (hyaline/ articular) o Commonly referred to as synovial joints o Motion possible in one or more planes  Degrees of freedom  Motion in 1 plane  1 degree of freedom  Motion in 2 planes  2 degrees of freedom  Motion in 3 planes  3 degrees of freedom  Motion may be rotational or translational o Avascular: lack of blood flow (ex: ACL can’t repair/ rebuild itself)


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