Child Psych Week 2
Child Psych Week 2 Psych 300
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 300 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Sabrina Lynn Thurman (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Chapter One (continued) & Chapter Two Lecture 2 August 22. 2016 Information-Proccessing Theory Approaches Views humans as having limited ability to process information Can be extended to account for development and other domains (language, relationships, social, personality) Continuous development (gradual) Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory Approach Greater focus on emotions and personality Gives socialization and society far greater importance A common theme is the search for identity Childhood Psychological Crisis Infancy: Trust vs. Mistrust Infant tries to ﬁgure out if world/caregiver is safe Toddlerhood: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Children doing things for themselves Early Childhood: Initiative vs Guilt Motivation, doing things with others Late Childhood: Industry vs Inferiority Doing things successfully Adolescence: Identity vs Role Confusion Conﬁdence in one’s self can inﬂuence them later Contextual Systems Theory Approaches Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner) Child is center, each ring represents interacting biological, social, and cultural inﬂuences Microsystem: Immediate environment (home, neighborhood, school) Mesosystem: Interrelationships between pieces of microsystem (poverty may inﬂuence school) Exosystem: More distant inﬂuence that indirectly aﬀect child (friends of family) Macrosystem: Major historical events and cultural customs inﬂuences Chronosystem: constantly changing temporal component of the environment (time period) Sociocultural Theory (Vygotsky) Emphasizes the importance of cultural tools, symbols, and ways of thinking Child acquires information from more knowledgable members of the community Dynamic Systems Theory (Thelen and Smith) Emphasizes development as the emerging organization arising from he interaction of many diﬀerent processes Multi-leveled, multi casual Ethological Theory (Lorenz and Tinbergen) Ethology: evolutionary origins of behavior, adaptive and survival values of animals Sensitive/critical brief period for imprintation Speciﬁc experiences have signiﬁcant positive/negative consequences for development and behavior (Lorenz’s geese) Chapter Two: Studying Child Development Outline Research methods in developmental psychology Measuring attributes and behaviors Methods of collecting data Strategies for assessing developmental change Cross-cultural studies of development Neuroscience and development Ethical issues in developmental research Measuring Attributes and Behaviors Scientiﬁc Method Use of objective, measurable, and repeatable techniques to gather information Variable: factor having no ﬁxed or constant value in a given situation (e.g. personality) Operational Deﬁnition: Speciﬁcations of variables that are measured and objective (e.g. scores on personality inventory) Validity and Reliability Inter-rater reliabilty: Reliability between two observers to compare data Intra-reliability: Reliability between one’s self Methods of Collecting Data Research Process We try to simultaneously maximize three conﬂicting goals: Generalizability with respect to populations Realism for the participants Precision in control and measurement of variables Increasing the strength of one reduces strength of the other two All research methods have ﬂaws Each research strategy decision is a “three-horned dilemma” (McGrath 1981) Information Gathering Approaches Naturalistic Observation Observing without interfering in a real life setting Strengths: Antecedents and consequences of behavior are apparent Weaknesses: Participant reactivity, observer bias, less precision, diﬃculty establishing cause and eﬀect relationships Structured Observation Observations of behaviors in situations constructed by the experimenter (e.g. laboratory) Strengths: More precision/control over variables Weaknesses: Participant reactivity, observer bias Chapter Two (continued) Lecture 3, August 24. 2016 Methods of Collecting Data Interviews and Questionnaires Asking children or parents standardized questions about what they know or how they behave (written or verbal) Strengths: Quick, cheap, reaches a larger group Weaknesses: Answers given may not be totally true Meta Analysis Statistical examination of a body of research Assesses the eﬀect of the common central variable Strengths: Pools large body of research ﬁndings, more accurate, no participants needed Weaknesses: High skill level needed in statistics, variable deﬁnitions may not be identiﬁed across studies Research Designs Correlational Design Researcher sees if changes in one variable are accompanied by the systematic changes in another variable (association) Strengths: Useful when variables cannot be manipulated Weaknesses: Cannot determine cause and eﬀect Summarized through correlation coeﬃcient (r) Summarizes strength and direction of the relationship between two variables Experiment Design True Experiment Researcher manipulates one or more independent variables (IV) to observe the eﬀects on the dependent variables (DV) Uses random assignment to groups IV -> DV Cause -> Eﬀect Strengths: Can isolate cause and eﬀect relationships, high internal validity (control), avoids bias Weaknesses: Cannot be applied to entire population Field Experiment Experiment conducted in real-life, naturalistic settings Strengths: Can isolate cause and eﬀect relationships, more realistic Weaknesses: Less control of treatment conditions (environment) Quasi-Experiment Researchers investigate the eﬀects of IV’s that they do not manipulate themselves but that occur as a result of participant’s natural experiences No random assignment to groups Strengths: Natural separation of children into groups Weaknesses: Factors other than IV’s could cause results Case-Study/Single-Case Design In-depth observation of one or a few children Takes place over a period of time Strengths: Helpful for unique cases, does not require large sample Weaknesses: Observer bias, low generalizability Chapter Two (continued) Lecture 4, August 26. 2016 Strategies for Assessing Developmental Change Longitudinal Study The same participants are repeatedly tested over a period of time, usually years Strengths: Can examine the stability of characteristics Weaknesses: Require signiﬁcant dedication and time, high attrition, age history confound Attrition: Participants ending participation in study to focus on other things Age History Confound: Historical events in society that have an impact on participants which inﬂuence results Cross-Sectional Study Individuals of diﬀerent ages are examined at the same point in time Strengths: Less time and money than longitudinal study Weaknesses: Cannot track individual patterns of development or stability traits, Cohort eﬀects Cohort eﬀect: Historical events that impact some of participants but not all Sequential Study Examines groups of individuals of two or more diﬀerent ages over a period of time Usually shorter than a longitudinal study Strengths: Combines advantages of longitudinal and cross sectional studies, can examine stability of traits over short period Weaknesses: Same problems as longitudinal studies but to a lesser degree Microgenetic Study “Small changes in development" Close observations are made of the individual child’s behavior from one trial to the next Strengths: Permits identiﬁcation of precise processes Weaknesses: Careful selection of participants Cross Cultural Studies of Development Compare children from diﬀerent cultures Special attention must be given to participant Ethnography: Set of methods including observations and interviews, used by researchers to describe the behaviors and underlying meaning systems within a given culture Neuroscience and Development Cognitive Neuroscience Study of brain structures and system and their association with behavior Focus on typical and atypical development Use of technological advances Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans Not typically used in standard studies since a chemical must be injected Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Functional: Looking at brain while it’s active (task or listening to sound) Diﬃcult to do with babies due to movement Electroencephalography (EEG) and Event-Related Potential (ERP) recordings Information gathered from outer parts of brain Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) Hemodynamics: How blood is being transferred from parts of brain, helps to see what parts of brain are active Ethical Issues Nonharmful procedures Informed consent Parental consent Debrieﬁng if deception used Explaining to participant what study really was Conﬁdentiality of responses Jeopardy If there’s anything that could jeopardize participants willingness to participate, you have to inform them (old or new info) Inform participants of ﬁndings Vocabulary Attrition: Participants ending participation in study to focus on other things Age History Confound: Historical events in society that have an impact on participants which inﬂuence results Cohort eﬀect: Historical events that impact some of participants but not all Ethnography: Set of methods including observations and interviews, used by researchers to describe the behaviors and underlying meaning systems within a given culture
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