Week 3 Culture Notes
Week 3 Culture Notes FNDS 4630
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNDS 4630 at University of Georgia taught by Hea Park in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Notes f or FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 3 8/22 -8/26 ) Monday: Flavor principles • Traditional seasonings or “flavor principles”. (More smell than taste) • Flavor principles are the signature flavors that are associated with food preparation within a culture • Flavor is imparted by geography, latitude, longitude, and climate. (Hotter areas use stronger flavor) Central to a cultural cuisine are the combinations of foods and the significance of flavor. Flavor principle examples: Middle East/Greece: Tomato + Cinnamon West Africa: Tomato + Peanut + Chile Mexico: Tomato + Chile Italy/France: Tomato + Olive oil + Garlic + Basil Foodways: Acceptability Becomes important as food supply becomes constant No society has ever eaten all possible food items From Foodways to Food Habits Food Habits: An individual’s choices and behavior as they are related to food InedibleàEdible by animals but not humansàEdible by humans but not my kind of humansàEdible by humans like me but not meàEdible by me What I actually eat…Individual food choices “Edible by me” The Consumer Food Choice Model depicts this. Cost, Taste, Variety, Well-Being, Self Expression, and Convenience affect an individual’s food choices. They change as you change age. The food choices affect physiology/metabolism and health outcomes. Consumer Food Choice Model: Taste • Food selection is primarily motivated by TASTE • TASTE: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami Consumer Food Choice Model: Cost • Income level is the most significant sociodemographic factor in predicting selection • In poorer societies, price is more important than taste • In wealthier societies, food choices change Consumer Food Choice Model: Other factors • Convenience -Especially important in urban societies • Self expression -Cultural activities -Religion -Region • Physical and spiritual well-being -Age, gender, body image, state of health • Variety -Humans are motivated psychologically to try new foods Changing American Foodways • Foodways of a society change within a cultural framework Driving forces Ethnic diversity • Age distribution (Getting older, taste buds older) As you get older, in general, you want stronger flavors Generation Y, authentic ethnic foods, eating out • Household size: smaller, packaging • Socioeconomic status 1/3 households have income below $35,000 before economic downturn Higher income consumers- food purchases are expressions of personal preferences, values, lifestyle Intention to Economize (2009) 53% just getting by 21% struggling Decreased…% • Foreign vacations 78% • Coffee shop visits 72% • Bars/club visits 71% • Upscale restaurants 71% Increased…% • Coupon use 64% • Prepare more meals at home 63% • Seek more deals 61% • Store brand groceries 46% Government Programs -School nutrition program -Food stamps (SNAP, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program -WIC (Women, Infants, and Children EFNEP (expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program) The budget on government programs has increased Women in the Workplace Time and Convenience New technologies/industry Improved food ingredients Food processing Packaging Distribution Nutrition Science Consumer more aware of diet-health link Industry response Media Preferred source shift from books, magazines and TV to internet US Spice and herb consumption Spicier and more flavorful • Increasing ethnic diversity • Baby boomers- aging against taste buds • Gen Y- more authentic, exotic flavors • Increased travel • Increased exposure to TV chefs • Diet/health link- decreased salt/fat. Phytonutrient sources 1970- 1.3 lbs of spice per capita 2006- 3.3 lbs of spice per capita Dietary Surveys • Estimates of food consumption by large population segments with the aim of detecting changes in dietary or nutritional status of a population • US Government Dietary Surveys -USDA (US Department of Agriculture)- FNA (Food and Nutrition Service)—began in 1935 HFCS— Household Food Consumption Survey NFCS— Nationwide Food Consumption Survey CSFII— Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals -DHHS (Department of health and human services)-CDC—began in 1960 NHES—National Health Examination Survey NHANES—National Health and USDA Dietary Surveys (HFCS, NFCS, CFII) Uses.. • Demand for ag products • Determine effects of demographics on food expenditures • Examine eating practices, including at-risk groups • Document trends DHHS Dietary Survey (NHANES) Uses.. • Estimate # persons with selected diseases and risk factors • Monitor trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of certain diseases • Study relationships between diet, nutrition, and health • Analyze risk factors for selected diseases • Explore emerging public health issues and new technologies • Identify target groups for intervention Dietary Survey • 24 hour recall • Food Record • Food Frequency • Diet History Food Habits or Food-related Behavior Research Traditional approach • Food consumption • Determine % RDA Correlate with selected demographic characteristics of respondents Provides: snapshot of what is being consumed, but little about why Current approach • Food consumption • Food preference • Food ideology • Sociocultural variables Demographics Reading habits Religion Accessibility Acculturation Provides: What is being consumed and why Dietary Acculturation • The process that occurs when members of a minority group adopt eating patterns and food choices of the host country It’s all related to food and searching for new foods Food Habits or Food-related Behavior Research Single Item Measures of Acculturation • Residency 1) Length of residency in host country 2) Length of residency in country of birth 3) Place of birth • Language 1) Proficiency 2) Preference 3) Spoken at home • Generation Level • Friendship Preferences • Self-identification Acculturation Scales: General • Several previously identified single measures • Specific to population group • Not specific to food Food-based • Food lists-typical of US and native culture • Food lists and dietary behaviors that reflect native culture and acculturation (Can assume dietary acculturation) Wednesday: Consumption of red meat has decreased over time. Consumption of poultry has increased over time. Fish/shellfish consumption hasn’t changed a lot (slight increase because of salmon, but not much) Fruit and vegetable consumption has a bigger fluctuation. The most consumed vegetable is potato (by a huge margin). A lot of the potato is consumed in french fry form. Second is tomato (but most are consumed canned- ketchup, bbq sauce, tomato sauce) The most consumed fruit is a banana. Both of these foods have a lot of carbohydrates (big problem with how they are consumed) Closer to half of American’s calories come from grain and fat/oils. US diets are out of balance with recommendations (we consume more meat eggs, nuts, and grains than recommended level) (we consume less vegetables, dairy, and fruit than recommended.) 1909-2012 (red meat consumption peaked in 1975 and then has been decreasing overtime) (pork stayed pretty consistent) (chicken increased) For the first time in 2010, white meat consumption was higher than beef. Per capita availability of chicken is higher than that of beef. People eat more white meat because it’s cheaper and because of nutritional information Pork is red meat For the last 30 years, the obesity rate in America has significantly increased Each ethnic group developed its own prevalence of obesity, and the prevalence depends on gender. About 50% of the black population is obese. Asians have low prevalence. Hispanic is higher than white, but slightly lower than black. Black women have a very high prevalence of obesity (one reason is that it’s related to poverty, and the concept of health) (black people traditionally have a slightly different concept about fat) PIR- poverty income raiser When PIR is high- rich Low PIR- poor Among men, obesity prevalence is generally similar at all income levels, with a tendency to be slightly higher at higher income levels Among women, obesity prevalence increases as income decreases. If we find out why this is, we can intervene correctly The Diet and Health Connection Influential lifestyle habits • Tobacco use, alcohol use, and nutritional choices Chronic diseases • Heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes • Connection with poor diet. Heart disease and Cancer are the leading causes of death Talking about people living in the states (have gone through acculturation): 40% of Native American men develop obesity Obesity and cholesterol are highly related Although, Asian’s obesity rate is lower, they have similar cholesterol levels. How strongly diseases are correlated depends on the ethnicity. Asians develop more chronic diseases when they have slightly higher obesity Each ethnic group responds differently Heart disease and Cancer are the leading causes of death Ethnicity and Chronic Disease Among minority populations.. Higher reported levels • Obesity • Diabetes • Hypertension Among immigrants • Increased obesity with increased acculturation Cultural Effects on Diet and Health • Traditional food choices • Relationship between food and health (food used to treat illness or maintain health) • How health is perceived • Dietary changes with length and location of residence in US (acculturation) Inconsistent classification of groups Classification often very broad and across gender groups Incidence vs Prevalence The data is self reported of which ethnicity you are. This can lead to confusing results. Prevalence: The fraction or proportion of a group possessing a disease or condition at a specific time (all events) Incidence: The fraction or proportion of a group initially free of a disease or condition over a period of time (new events) 20 people sleepy now. 10 minutes later, 30 people. So the incidence is 10 because 10 people newly developed the condition. To see how acculturation affects food choices, you have to look at incidence, not just prevalence. Intercultural Nutrition • Study of food habits has a specific applications in determining nutritional status and implementing dietary change • Avoid ethnocentric assumptions • Diet should be carefully evaluated within the context of culture Nutritional Assessment and Counseling/Education “Observe the nature of each country; diet; customs; the age of the patient; speech; manners; fashion; even his silence..One has to study all these signs and analyze what th they portend”- Hippocratic writings, 5 century B.C.E. Iceberg model of multicultural influences on communication A person’s cultural heritage impacts communication. The most obvious elements affecting communication • Race • Gender • Age • Nationality Other challenges affecting communication • Acculturation/Assimilation • Socioeconomic Status • Occupation • Health Condition • Religion • Sexual Preference • Group Membership • Educational Background • Political Orientation Iceburg concept of culture: Like an iceburg, 9/10 of culture is below the surface. Surface culture: Most easily seen. Emotional level- low • Food, dress, music, crafts, dance, literature, language, celebration Shallow culture: • Courtesy, personal space, eye contact, concept of beauty, social interaction rate, etc. Deep culture: • Tolerance of physical pain, attitudes towards dependents, definition of obscenity, etc. Language is abstract and can only be interpreted within context The context in verbal communication • Low context cultures • High context cultures Low context cultures • Information is in a logical, linear sequence • Explicit • Straightforward • Unambiguous • Focus on speaker • Impatient with high-context speakers • Often miss non-verbal cues • Ex: Swiss, German, Scandinavians High context cultures • Meaning is in context, not words • Attitudes/feelings prominent in the conversation • Reading between the lines • Misunderstandings easily occur • Nonverbal communication • Ex: Asian, Native American, Middle Eastern Successful Intercultural Communication CRASH to remember components of cultural competency C- Culture: consider culture in interaction R- Respect: show respect A- Assess/affirm: assess/affirm differences S- Sensitive: be sensitive H- Humility: demonstrate humility Friday: Kathrine Ingerson- registered dietician Southern bbq counts as a global cuisine Trattoria- pasta station at Bolton Kalmeta olives- soaked in squid ink Hickory and Oak- rotisserie chicken Canting- stir-fry station (Korean, Chinese, Thai, Vietnamese) Pho noodle bar (Americanized version)-the broth is vegetarian. Normally pho is not vegetarian Mayo is considered a salad dressing Pimento cheese- cheddar cheese, pimento, mayo Medical Nutrition Therapy: -Celiac Disease (autoimmune disease)/Gluten Free -Diabetes, Low Sodium, Heart Healthy -PKU, FODMAP, pureed foods -Digestive disorders Food Allergies -Milk, wheat, soy, egg, fish, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts Vegetarian Vegan Religious -Muslim, Jewish, Indian