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Human Anatomy Notes

by: Amanda Selly

Human Anatomy Notes BIOL 220

Amanda Selly
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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About this Document

These are the notes taken in class on Wednesday August 24!
Human Anatomy
Michael Bentley
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Selly on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 220 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Michael Bentley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 648 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biology at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 08/26/16
Human Anatomy Notes Amanda Selly August 24, 2016 The Human: Humans have several classifications that unite them with other beings of similar or the same classification. A Eukaryotes: 1 Eukaryotes store their DNA in a closed nucleus A Animal Kingdom: o Humans belong to the animal kingdom. Meaning they have features in common with other animals that belong to this kingdom o Creatures in the Animal Kingdom require food for energy as opposed to obtaining energy from the sun o Breath oxygen: The equation of Life: which just shows how energy is created and used C 6 12+66O --2> 6CO + 62 O + 2nergy -3 Energy + ADP (adenosine diphosphate) + Pi (Pi = PO ) 4--> ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) A Chordate Phylum (vertebrate subphylum) Humans are considered to be Chordates and Vertebrates. A Vertebrate is just a subsection of chordates but a majority of chordates are vertebrates. There are 3 aquatic classes of chordate: jawless fish, cartilaginous fish, bony fish. And four terrestrial classes: amphibians, birds, mammals reptiles. They have the fallowing qualities: 1. Notochord: a notochord exists during development and becomes the body axis which is made up of: a Vertebral column b Intervertebral disks 2 Central Nervous System (brain and spinal chord) a Located in the dorsal body cavity: in the back of the notochord b Hollow 2 Bilateral External Symmetry: if a chordate is cut in half each side will be equal a Midsagittal plane: Median, middle dividing line of the body b Parasagittal plane: any line parallel to the midsagittal plane  Medial: close to i.e. your nose is medial to your ears  Lateral: away from i.e. your elbow is lateral to your rib cage 2 Development a 3 germ levels in development 1 Endoderm 2 Mesoderm 3 Ectoderm b Metamerism: Segmental development which means that each part of the body develops on its own 2 Cephalization: the head is the first part of the body to develop a From the notochord the head and spinal chord develop first and the rest of the body follows 2 Visceral Arches and Pharyngeal Pouches: a Visceral arches are rounded pieces of cartilage on either side of the face and neck during development that form into the face and neck. b Pharyngeal Pouches are in between the visceral arches that form into the external auditory canal 2 Tubular Digestion System a Mouth --> Pharynx --> esophagus --> stomach --> intestine --> anus 2 Ventral Body Cavity abdominal cavity 3 Urinary System to relieve excess waste 4 Distinct male and female sexes 5 Closed Circulatory System: the blood stays within the system 6 Endoskeleton: our skeletons are deep within our body 7 Pectoral(arms) and Pelvic (legs) appendages A Mammal Class 1 Mammary Glands: provide nutrients to children 2 Hommerthermic: warm blooded a We regulate our own body temperature 37 C 1 Hair: all mammals have hair 2 3 ear ossicles (small bones) a Malleus, incus, stapes 2 Temporal- Mandibular Jaw Articulation allows us to open and close our mouths 3 Heterodont Dentition a All mammals have different kinds of teeth that are specific to their dietary needs 2 Palate that separates the nose and mouth a This ensures that we can breath while eating 2 Children are developed in Uterus with a placenta a Most mammals have this feature with the exception of prototherians (ant eaters and the platypus who lay eggs) 2 Muscular Diaphragm 3 Respiratory System for breathing air as opposed to under water 4 Four Chambered Heart a Contains 2 atria and 2 ventricles 2 Pectoral and Pelvic Limbs  Proximal: close to  Distal: Away from  If there is no particular reference point specified the person is referring to the attachment site  i.e. the fingers are distal. Meaning the fingers are located away from their point of attachment  Palmar: on the palm side of your hand  Plantar: the side of your foot that is planted on the ground A Primate Order Humans are primates, because primates and humans have these things: 1. Prehensile Hands: we can grab things 2. A modified should that can preform range of motion 3. Foramen Magnum: At the base of the skull where the spinal chord leaves the brane a In non primates like dogs the spinal chord leaves proximal to the brain as opposed to inferiorly because of the location of their vertebral column. 2 Stereoscopic Vision: we use both eyes to produce images 3 Poor sense of Smell 4 Well developed Central Nervous System A Hominid Family 1 Humans are the only members of the hominid family left 2 We stand upright a Bipedal locomotion: we walk on two feet b Modified Spinal Column: vertebrae at the top of the column are smaller than those at the bottom to better support out weight. 1 We also have several curvatures that absorb the shock of walking and running a Modified Pelvis: supports the weight of the organs being upright


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