Social Psych Week 3
Social Psych Week 3 Psych 360
Popular in Social Psych
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 360 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Lowell Gaertner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Social Psych in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
The Self I. Self as Self-Representations A. Characteristics of Self-Representations 1. Central vs. Peripheral Central: beliefs that we have about ourselves that stay with us Peripheral: beliefs that fade away or only apply in certain circumstances 2. Time reference: context dependent 3. Actualized: Who we think we are or who others think we should be, can inﬂuence our mental state (crisis) e.g., Oyserman & Markus (1990) Asked “good” kids and delinquent kids about hopes and fears Good kids had hopes and fear selves, delinquent kids didn’t have positive future selves Argued mix of fear and hope selves allow balance 4. Valence: we know we have positive and negative traits/beliefs about ourselves B. Sources of Self-representations 1. Roles: Certain stereotypes and roles aﬀect how we view ourselves 2. Group Membership: Certain stereotypes about our group or other groups inﬂuence how we view ourselves 3. Self-Perception Theory: We come to know ourselves like we know other people, through observation 4. Social Comparison: For most of social life, we don’t have objective standards so we compare ourselves to others to gauge ourselves 4.b. Social Comparison Theory (Festinger, 1954). Morse & Gergen (1970) When we seek comparison, we seek others who are like us Downward comparison: comparing ourselves to others worse than us which make us feel better Upward comparison: comparing ourselves to others better than us which makes us feel worse C. Motivations in Self-knowledge 1. Assessment (or accuracy): achieved by comparing with similar others and objective standards 2. Enhancement: We don’t want to learn the truth, we want to feel good about ourselves Self-enhancement can be achieved via: 2.a. downward social comparison 2.b. re-interpreting information interpret information to maintain positive beliefs of ourselves 2.c. Self-handicapping When afraid of failure, we jeopardize our performance so we can make it an external excuse E.g.,Berglas & Jones (1978) People chose to self handicap if they thought they would fail a test 2.d. Basking-in-Reﬂected-Glory (BIRGING) Cialdini et al. (1976) Study 1: School Clothes Students more likely to wear university clothing when football team wins Cialdini et al. (1976) Study 2: We? Failure tends to make us associate with winners (fail test, “we” won) 3. Veriﬁcation: We want to verify who we think we are and ﬁnd info to back that up (good or bad) not change our self belief, but conﬁrm it Swann, Stein-Seroussi, & Giesler (1992) “Choose Your Partner” We work with people who see us as we see ourselves Swann & Read (1981) “Do You Like Me" If we think others don’t see us how we see ourselves, the other person likes us more compared to people who agree with us We compensate and become more likable when we think someone doesn’t like us (and vice versa) By changing our behavior, we ensure others see us how we see ourselves 4. Improvement To better oneself, you have to know weaknesses and want to be better
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