Social Psych Week 4
Social Psych Week 4 Psych 360
Popular in Social Psych
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 360 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Lowell Gaertner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Social Psych in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Attitudes I. What is an “Attitude?” Attitude: evaluation of object Evaluative object: what we’re evaluating We can have inconsistencies, but over time we tend to become more consistent in our attitudes A. Tripartite Model of Attitudes A.1. Aﬀect How does object make you feel A.2. Cognition Beliefs you have about object A.3. Behavioral Intention What you intend to do with/about object B. Balance Theory and Cognitive Consistency Sentiment relations: attitude toward object, positive or negative Unit relations: idea that things belong together or not, positive or negative Drift towards “balance" We don’t like inconsistencies, we try to balance the triangle Can be all positive, NOT all negative (product of all signs) Homophobia Example (Adams, Wright, and Lohr,1996) Heterosexual men, some homophobic, some not Showed heterosexual, homosexual porn, measured erection and asked if they liked it They said they only didn’t like gay men porn But erection measurement showed that only homophobes were aroused by gay men porn Balanced because they were gay and that’s all they can change to balance II. How Do Attitudes Form? A. Learning Two ways attitudes can be formed, classical and operant conditioning A.1. Classical Conditioning UCS -> UCR Pavlovian response ^CS E.g.,Razran (1940) Participants listen to slogans, some while eating and some while smelling something gross People had diﬀerent reactions based on stimulus Olson & Fazio (2006) Reversed racism Black people with positive, white people with negative Reactions reversed compared to control A.2. Operant Conditioning Positive outcome increases behavior, negative outcome decreases behavior Consequences shape our attitude E.g., Insko (1965) “Aloha Week Festival”. Students were called and told about party, asked opinions about it One condition, in favor of Aloha week, person said good. Not in favor, said nothing Another condition, in favor of Aloha week, person said nothing. Not in favor, said good Student reacted diﬀerently based on reaction B. Cognitive Responses C. As a Consequence of our Behavior III. How Do We Measure Attitudes? A. Self-Report “How do you feel about pizza” 1 = bad to 7 = good. Simple, mundane issues If not mundane issue, people might not answer honestly B. Indirect Approaches Not directly asking and not directly answering, but inferring Implicit Associations Test (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1988) Word association IV. Attitude Aﬀects Behavior A. Low-to-No Association in Initial Research Used to measure attitudes and behaviors, had no correspondence E.g., La Pierre (1934) Travelled with an Asian couple to diﬀerent restaurants to see if they would be seated 98% let them sit After, he wrote a letter and asked about their policies. Their attitude was they don’t accept Chinese people, but behavior was opposite B. Methodological Improvements Reveal Attitude – Behavior Link Fishbein and Azjen Developed idea of multiple act criterion Their might be a link, but their are multiple inﬂuences So measured multiple instances/scenarios Speciﬁcity of Attitude and Behavior Make attitude as speciﬁc as behavior, showed better connection E.g., Weigel & Newman (1976) Had people ﬁll out questionairre about environment Asked to sign petition, organized clean up, made recycling program More in favor of environmental issues, behavior reﬂected it Time 1…………. Attitudes toward environmental protection embedded in a larger survey 3months……….. Sign petitions opposing costal drilling, nuclear plants, regulate emissions 4.5 months…….. Telephoned “Participate in road side litter clean up” and who actually participated 6 months………. Telephoned “Participate in recycling program” and who actually participated C. Theory of Reasoned Action (Azjen & Fishbein) Trying to predict behavior that we have to plan Best predictor of behavior is intention Combat between personal attitudes and subjective norms (society) Attitudes involve thinking about consequences, likelihood of consequences, evaluate good/bad of consequences, and take sum of products Subjective norms involve thinking about signiﬁcant others and our motivation to comply, take sum of products Two sums battle to make decision
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