Social Psych Week 7
Social Psych Week 7 Psych 360
Popular in Social Psych
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 360 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Lowell Gaertner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Social Psych in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Interpersonal Relationships I. Evolutionary Perspective Natural selection: species evolve via genetic survival (i.e., transmission of genes from one generation to the next) Physical structures, mental traits, and behavioral tendencies that facilitate genetic survival remain in the gene pool (are selected) Less eﬀective structures, traits, and tendencies are transmitted at a slower rate and eventually die out (are not selected) Human behavior reﬂects, in part, the behavioral tendencies that promoted genetic- survival among hominid ancestry Males who were selective of fertile females reproduced more Females who were selective chose men who could provide/protect A. Sex Diﬀerences in Mate Preference (Buss, 1997; Buss & Kenrick, 1998) E.g., David Buss (1989) sex diﬀerences in mate preference within 37 cultures across 6 continents Travelled the world and asked men and women questions about important traits when choosing a partner Found that men thought it was more important for partner to be young and attractive Women thought it was more important for partner to have high earning potential and ambition Men were more concerned with virginity than women B. Sex Diﬀerence in Desire for Sexual Variety Ancestral males maximize genetic survival by having multiple sex partners, manifests itself in a desire for sexual variety 9Clark & Hatﬁeld (1989)two studies from 1978 and 1982 same patterns Male and female attractive researchers asked to walk around campus and approach people who were moderately to very attractive Asked questions either “would you go out with me,” “would you come over to my apartment,” or "would you go to bed with me tonight" Men are more driven by sexuality, less picky of sexual partners David Schmitt (2003)-surveyed 16,288 people from 10 world regions Men were shown to want more sex partners than women Cultural, relationship, sexuality, how long they knew partner all didn’t matter C. Female Mate-Preference Fluctuates across Menstrual Cycle Ancestral females might maximize genetic survival by obtaining a partner with resources AND mating outside pair-bond with a mate who could bestow genetic beneﬁts to the oﬀspring (i.e., a male displaying evidence of power & health) Such inﬁdelity is risky and payoﬀ only if produce oﬀspring, so most successful if linked to fertility cycle. Manipulated physical symmetry of men, listen to masculine or not masculine voice, smell shirt blindly (symmetrical or not) Tracked women’s fertility cycle and their ratings Found that when women were mid cycle (ovulation) they were more attracted to physical symmetry and masculinity Long term partners did not vary based on cycle E.g., Gangestad, Simpson, Cousins, Garver-Apgar, & Christensen (2004) Told males that they need to convince women on monitor why she should date them over another male in the room Coded whether it was socially competitive/dominant (eye contact) Men varied in how they treated other man (putting him down) Other women were brought in to rate how attractive these men were for one night stand and relationship Mid cycle women were more attracted to dominant men just as one night stand D. Similarity in MHC Alleles Predicts Female Unfaithfulness The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are genes that code cell-surface markers to distinguish self from pathogens. Mice, birds, and ﬁsh evidence preferences for mates with MHC genotypes diﬀerent from own – mating with a partner with diﬀerent MHC genes can yield oﬀspring that can detect a greater range of foreign peptides. MHC lets body know whether pathogen in body is part of self or not self (attacks virus) E.g., Garver-Apgar, Gangestad, Thornhill, Miller, & Olp (2006) Brought in heterosexual couples, found how similar/diﬀerent MHC was, asked woman questions The more MHC similar her partner was, the less sexually attractive she found him Particularly during mid cycle, MHC similar women found other men more attractive Similar partners also reported more aﬀairs, but didn’t occur in other relationships Oﬀspring would be worse oﬀ if mated with similar MHC male E. Infanticide Rates for Genetic Fathers vs. Stepfathers Showed that young children are more likely to be killed by stepfather than genetic father Males value own oﬀspring more than other male’s oﬀspring Interpersonal Relationships (Cont.) II. Attachment Theory (John Bowlby) Repeated patterns of infant-caregiver interaction aﬀect relationship functioning throughout life. A. Repeated Infant-Caregiver Interactions Attachment system evolved to maintain proximity between the infant and caregiver. Threat to attachment elicits: 1. Protest – screams, cries, get attention 2. Despair – quiets down, safety 3. Detachment – if someone were to come and care for it, it would form new attachment B. Ainsworth’s Styles of Attachment and the Strange-Situation Three types of attachment styles Looked at babies in the home and style of parenting, then in lab with style of parenting Secure: presence of mom caused baby to explore Ambivalent: presence of mom caused baby to be angry Avoidant: presence of mom caused no reaction in baby C. Attachment and Adult Romantic-Relationships Attachment styles (mental models) extend beyond the infant-caregiver and aﬀect later relationships C1. Adult Attachment and Love Experiences (Hazan & Shaver, 1987) Participants were told to circle descriptions they relate to most Secure: "I ﬁnd it pretty easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on them. I don't often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me." Ambivalent: "I ﬁnd that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that my dating partners do not really love me or will not want to stay with me. I want to get close to my partners and this sometimes scares people away." Avoidant: "I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I ﬁnd it diﬃcult to trust them completely, diﬃcult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when anyone gets too close, and often, dating partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being." C2. Adult Attachment: Conﬂict and Support E.g. Simpson, Rholes, & Dede (1996) Brought couples to lab, discussed mild or major issue in relationship Coders rated how people were communicating (cooperating or not), how upset Separated couples and answered questions about their partner Anxious and avoidant styles are associated with greater conﬂict in the face of a threat to the relationship, devalued importance of relationship Anxiously attached women when discussing were more negative/aggressive Avoidant attached men were shut down when discussing serious problem E.g., Simpson, Rholes, Orinea, & Grich (2002) Brought couples to lab, told man he was going to be put in unpleasant situation, then videotaped him talking to woman Coded how much support he looked for Secure women gave good amount of support for how much he wanted, anxious women gave too much or not enough, Secure level is associated with appropriate support giving C.3. Adult Attachment and Relationship Violence Sexual jealousy and concerns with abandonment are reoccurring themes with relationship violence. Physically violent husbands are more ambivalently attached than are non-violent husbands Male and female members of reciprocally violent relationships are more ambivalently attached than are male and female members of non-violent relationships Stressors in relationships (e.g., arguments, etc.) might activate abandonment issues among anxiously attached persons who subsequently become emotionally aroused and lash out physically against their partners.
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