Social Psych Week 13
Social Psych Week 13 Psych 360
Popular in Social Psych
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 360 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Lowell Gaertner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Social Psych in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Pro-Social Behavior I. Altruism Altruism: motivation to beneﬁt others without concern for own-welfare (no internal or external rewards) Egoism = motivation to beneﬁt one’s self A. Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis (Dan Batson, UT undergrad) Empathy (an empathic emotional response to a victim’s distress, i.e., sympathy, compassion)à altruism Argues that when people feel sympathy, that can motivate person to do for the other E.g., Toi & Batson (1982) Participants told that study was in conjunction with radio station to see how people react to programming Told to listen and feel how other person is feeling or told to listen and be objective Listen to student named Carol talking about how she was in car accident and couldn’t come to school, given letter from Professor that reiterates what participant heard about Carol and asked to help her Diﬃcult escape: Carol will be in your class, easy escape: Carol won’t physically be in class Empathetic people were more likely to help Empathy:“Try to take the perspective of the person who is being interviewed, imagine how he or she feels about what has happened and how it has aﬀected his or her life.” Objective : “Try to be as objective as possible, carefully attending to all the information presented about the situation and about the person who is being interviewed. Try not to concern yourself with how the person being interviewed feels about what has happened.” B. Negative-State Relief (Cialdini and colleagues) Argued that when we hear other people’s problems it makes us feel sad and causes us to correct this by helping, therefore helping ourselves E.g., Cialdini, Schaller, Houlihan, Arps, Fultz, & Beaman (1987) Participant rigged to knock over huge stack of papers Experimenter leaves and another comes in and says he’s running another study, asks for help without credit/pay to make phone call 4 conditions: 1. Paper knocked over, other asks for help 2. Paper knocked over, picture task, other asks for help 3. Paper knocked over, picture task, given dollar, other asks for help 4. Paper knocked over, picture task, experimenter says did well, other asks for help Conditions where got nothing, 80% agreed to help. Conditions where got something, 20% agreed Helping because helping feels good for ourselves 2(mood: ﬁxed, labile) x 2(empathy: yes, no) Replicated the easy escape condition of Toi and Batson (1982) Given “pill" mynoxin Told it freezes the current feeling state (if mad, stay mad) or told nothing Found that people who were told feelings can’t change, no diﬀerence. Suggest helping not to help, but help themselves II. Decision Making Model of Helping (Latane & Darley) Views helping as a series of decisions – shortcoming at any decision stage inhibits helping A. Bystander Eﬀect E.g., Latane & Darley (1968) Seizure Study Participant has headphones, talks to “victim” who mentions he has epilepsy 0, 2, or 4 other people present Hear “seizure sounds" As number of people increases, helping decreases 1. Diﬀusion of Responsibility People more likely to ignore if bystander because they think others will help 2. Pluralistic Ignorance See event that might be emergency, look to others to see if it is an emergency just like everyone else E.g., Lataney & Darley (1968) Smoke Study Participant either alone or with 2 others who ignore smoke Smoke ﬁlls room, alone more likely to leave room B. Direct Requests for Help More likely to help if made to feel responsible via a direct request E.g., Moriarity (1975) Beach Study At beach, asked strangers to watch stuﬀ (direct request) or for a cigarette Researcher pretends to be thief, 95% of people asked directly helped III. Arousal-Cost Reward Model (Pilliavin and colleagues) A. Arousal Ex.: proximity, familiarity, etc. B. Cost-Analysis We become negatively aroused when we see people in pain/bad things Weigh costs of helping Assumes egoistic Reduce arousal in most cost eﬀective manner E.g., Piliavin & Piliavin (1972) Blood vs. No Blood Staged emergency on subway platform Manipulated whether man who fell over had blood on face or no blood Found that people were less likely to help with presence of blood Eg., Darley & Batston (1973) Good Samaritan Study Participants were seminary students, told to go to building A to building B and give a lecture Half told to give lecture on The Good Samaritan, others told to give unrelated lecture Also told either hurry up you’re late, or were not rushed Participants had to pass person laying on street Found that topic of lecture didn’t matter, only time
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