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Drugs and Individual Behavior Notes - Week 1

by: McKenna Keck

Drugs and Individual Behavior Notes - Week 1 PSYCH 3102

Marketplace > University of Northern Iowa > Psychology > PSYCH 3102 > Drugs and Individual Behavior Notes Week 1
McKenna Keck
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About this Document

These notes cover what we've learned our 1st week of class, including drug administration, absorption, and distribution.
Drugs and Individual Behavior
Dr. Linda Walsh
Class Notes
Drugs, social, work, Administration, absorption, distribution




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenna Keck on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3102 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Dr. Linda Walsh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Individual Behavior in Psychology at University of Northern Iowa.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Drugs & Individual Behavior Week 1 Tuesday, August 23, 2016 – Introduction to Drugs ● General Drug Vocab & Information ○ Drug: “any chemical substance, natural or man­made (usually excluding nutrients, water, or oxygen), that – by its chemical nature – alters biological structure or functioning when  administered & absorbed ○ Pharmacology: is the discipline concerned w/ the uses, effects, & modes of drug  action ○ Psychoactive Drug: any drug that affects your feelings, perceptions, thought  processes, and/or behavior ■ All psychoactive drugs exert their effects by altering the  functioning of the nervous system. ■ Psychopharmacology: the study of how drugs affect behavior &  psychological processes ○ There are some products that aren’t technically drugs (by the above definition), so they aren’t regulated the same way drugs are. Like alcohol, tobacco, & natural/herbal  products/supplements. ● ∙  Placebo/Placebo Effects ○ Placebo: typically, an inert (chemically inactive) substance administered like a  drug ○ Placebo effect: any psychological or physiological effect or portion of an effect  that is due to expectation/belief rather than to chemical action ■ Even some of the effect seen from taking a real drug might actually be attributed to placebo effect. ○ Example: Double Blind Study of Treatment for Depression ■ Both groups, the one receiving the placebo & the one receiving the real drug, got better, but the group getting the real drug had a higher success rate than did  the placebo group. However, the group taking the real drug had different looking EEGs  than the group w/ placebo. ○ Video watched in class about Placebo Effect: v=yfRVCaA5o18 ○ B/c of the placebo effect, it’s possible for researchers or participants to come to  inaccurate conclusions during research. The double blind procedure protects against that. ■ Double blind procedure: the drug is identified by code number  only so neither the participants nor the data collector knows who is getting the placebo or  who is getting the drug until after the data collection is complete. ● The researcher can’t know so they can’t give  anyone any ideas or suggestions based on what they know. ○ Placebos can also produce placebo “side effects,” so when studying the side  effects of the drug, this has to be taken into account. ● Discussion of the case of Kathleen O’Leary & her husband ○ He refused to prescribe the morning after pill. Why do you think that is? ○ It turns out it was a conscience clause. This means he could refuse to prescribe b/c it was against his moral obligations. These laws vary from state to state. ○ As far as mandatory filling laws & conscience clauses go, Iowa has no such law  either way. ● Many Ways of Classifying Drugs ○ By their availability/commercial status ■ Prescription v. Nonprescription/OTC drugs; Licit v. Illicit drugs ○ By their potential for abuse ■ Schedules of Controlled Substances (I­V) ○ By their typical effects/uses/actions (This is the way our textbook is organized). ■ Depressants; stimulants ○ Anticonvulsants; antidepressants ■ SSRIs; MAOIs Thursday, August 25, 2016 ● Following a Drug Through the Body ○ 1. Administration ­ How the person is given/takes the drug ○ 2. Absorption ­ Drug is taken up into the bloodstream ■ Except injection, which goes directly into bloodstream. This would be step 1 for injection. ○ 3. Distribution ­ Blood carries drug to tissues ○ 4. Drug Action - “Drug binds to & affects cells” → important wording ■ It has to actually bind in order to change the biological functioning ■ Not about the movement of the drug, but about the interaction of  the drug molecule & the cells of the body (“Pharmacodynamics”) ○ 5. Termination of Effect, Metabolism and/or Elimination ○ Kinetics: refers to movement ■ All of the steps except step 4 have to do with Pharmacokinetics  (“drug movements”) ● Routes of Administration/Absorption ○ Each route has advantages & disadvantages ■ SO MANY variables ○ Oral Route ­ Most common “enteral” or “into GI tract” route ■ Easy, convenient, socially accepted ■ Gradual onset (5­30 minutes) with 75% absorbed within 1­3 hours  but may not be complete for 6­8 hours; provides a longer lasting effect ● Liquid is a little quicker, because it doesn’t have to  dissolve. ■ Reversible for a while ● You can throw up or pump their stomach. You can  get it back for a little while, in case they overdose, are allergic, drug interactions,  etc. ■ Not all drugs are well absorbed, some are destroyed by stomach  acids; some upset stomach, some require large pills/capsules that may be difficult to  swallow ● Might be too slow an onset if it was an emergency  medical situation ■ Different people will absorb different amounts depending on drug,  genetics, stomach contents; dosing not precise; some of the drug may be lost to “first­ pass” metabolism ●  First­pass Metabol  of Some Drugs ○ Some of the drug absorbed from GI  tract is immediately metabolized as it goes by enzymes in the liver before  it even makes the 1st pass around the body to be absorbed ○ You wouldn’t get the effect of a  substantial portion of the dose ○ Sometimes some of the metabolising enzymes are present in the wall of the GI tract as well! ■ Some Absorption Related Food/Drug Interactions ● Grapefruit juice increases absorption of  antihistamines, codeine, tranquilizers, cardiovascular, AIDs drugs, & others ○ More of those drugs will get into  your system. This could lead to overdose. ● Pop, fruit or veggie juice or vitamins with iron can  decrease absorption of erythromycin ● Dairy foods or other calcium rich items (like tums)  decrease absorption of tetracycline ○ It binds to calcium, so it won’t be  absorbed ● But food in stomach may improve absorption of  other drugs (example: antipsychotic Geodon (ziprasidone)) ○ Also might help avoid stomach  irritation ○ Basically, some drugs, if not taken  on a full stomach, will give you an upset tummy, and also will probably  not help you. ● Excess dietary salt may decrease lithium absorption; low salt levels may increase lithium absorption ■ Something New: “Prodrugs” ● May orally administer a “prodrug” (something that  will be turned into an active drug in your stomach but won’t be active otherwise.  It’s not a drug until your stomach changes it into one). ● Example: Vyvanse for ADHD ○ Lysine attached to d­amphetamine  makes it inactive until the lysine is removed in stomach. The d­ amphetamine won’t be active if snorted or ground up & injected. ○ More difficult for people abuse them. ○ Inhalation ■ Inhalation of gases/vapors and/or particles ■ Rapid absorption in lungs & fastest route to brain (5­8 seconds) ● Lungs → heart → brain. Very quickly. ■ Fairly easy once learned, but might take some practice ■ But: ● Many drugs cannot be inhaled. Your lungs are  somewhat fragile. ● Dose may be difficult to control. Could get caught  on your tongue, depends on how deeply you inhale, & how long that breath stayed in your lungs, etc. ● There is no drug depo or reserve ○ It’s usually just a small amount, with a not very sustained effect. You might need to administer more. ■ Smoking presents special risks ○ Injection ■ Subcutaneous (SC) or “skin­popping” ● You pinch the skin and stick the needle right under  the skin ● Slowest injection route; can irritate skin (cause  burning and itching) ○ There are a lot of sensory receptors  there, so it could hurt ● Often used for insulin injections ■ Intramuscular (IM) ● Intermediate speed depending on muscle selected  (arm faster than butt) & vehicle (oil or microencapsulated injected in butt, e.g.  “depot” injections of antipsychotics, or long­acting naltrexone for recovering  addicts, absorbed over weeks) ● Easier to do than intravenous, because you don’t  have to find a vein ● This is how a lot of our vaccines are administered ■ IV Injection or Infusion ● Intravenous ○ Fast (15 seconds to brain) ○ Bypasses absorption obstacles,  because it’s put directly into your blood ○ Most difficult & risky route ■ Everything has to be  sterile, clean, no air bubbles, blood vessels wear out, bloodborne  diseases, allergic responses, blood clots, not reversible etc. ● All injection routes give good control of dose,  because of the lack of absorption obstacles. ○ It’s not reversible. There is no  getting it back once it’s in there. ○ Through Mucous Membranes ■ Sublingual (under the tongue) ­ nitroglycerin; Suboxone ■ Buccal (held in cheek) ­ Nicorette gum, Fentanyl ■ Intranasal (sprays or snorting) ■ There is an absorption step, but there are a lot of blood vessels in  your nose, so it’s fairly quick. ○ Others ■ Topical ­ applied to skin ● Not so good at distributing around the body ■ Transdermal ­ high tech continuous, controlled release of a steady  dose of drug ● Like the patch ■ Rectal ­ another “enteral” route (suppository or enema) ● You might do this is the patient is unable to  swallow, vomiting, unconscious, etc. ■ Implantable (Implanon birth control ­ the progesterone filled tube  in the arm) ○ Routes Vary In: ■ Form of drug ■ Dose necessary & absorption ■ Time course (start & length of effect) ■ Intensity of drug effects ­ inhalation & intravenous most intense ■ Risk & benefits ● Distribution ○ Bloodstream distributes drug widely (not just to the problem area) ■ It tries to bind to everything that it can ○ Drugs vary in how fast they leave blood (depends on concentration, fat­solubility  of drug & whether it binds to proteins in blood) ○ Presence of other drugs can alter this speed ­ this is the source of drug­drug  interactions ○ Note from instructor: skip page 42­43 ○ Limitations to Distribution ■ The “blood­brain barrier” excludes or slows entry of many drugs  into the brain ● Psychoactive drugs are the fat­soluble ones that do  make it into the brain ● Many drugs can’t get into the brain, because of this  barrier ■ The “placental barrier” excludes some large molecule chemicals  but does NOT exclude psychoactive drugs ● Generally, the baby’s blood levels of the drug are  the same as the mother’s. *Some lines of notes copied directly from slides in order to maintain testing accuracy. Most is of the lecture and discussion, not found on slides.


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