BIO 182 Biodiversity
BIO 182 Biodiversity 182
Popular in General Biology 2
Popular in Biology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Williams on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 182 at Arizona State University taught by Michel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Biology at Arizona State University.
Reviews for BIO 182 Biodiversity
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/26/16
Biodiversity: Classifying Life Organisms are either prokaryotic or eukaryotic Prokaryotes lack membrane bound organelles unicellular (made of one cell) lack a membrane bound nucleus generally contain simple genomes o lack introns o less number of genes relative to eukaryotes Eukaryotes can be unicellular OR multicellular contain membrane bound organelles contain a membrane bound nucleus complex genomes o introns are spliced o linear chromosomes o large number of genes 3 Domains of Life 1. bacteria 2. archaea 3. eukarya Bacteria Domain prokaryotic plasma membrane composed of fatty acid chains o cell walls contain peptidoglycan gram positive vs gram negative method for dying and identifying circular, doublestranded DNA Archaea Domain prokaryotic cell membrane composed of branched hydrocarbon chains o distinct from both eukaryotes and bacteria o cell walls do NOT contain peptidoglycan circular, doublestranded DNA extremophiles: can live in extreme conditions Eukaryotic Kingdom Divisions protista o simple, mostly unicellular and have a wide variety of methods for obtaining nutrients o slime molds, algae fungi o unicellular or multicellular organisms o absorb nutrients from environment o yeasts, molds plantae o multicellular, contain cell walls, obtain energy thru photosynthesis and absorption o mosses, ferns, flowering plants Animalia o Multicellular, organized tissues, obtain nutrients by ingestion o Sponges, worms, vertebrates, insects Phylogeny trees Roots = ancestor/ancestral lineage Tips = descendants of ancestor moving from root to branches is moving forward in time phylogeny trees are hypotheses about the evolution of species o based on data Evolution environmental factors and genetic variation cause evolution over time o ex. Natural selection: inheritable genetic variation that introduces mutations beneficial for survival will selectively outcompete mutations that inhibit survival How does variation occur? Mutations in DNA o Can occur in a wide variety of ways Errors in DNA replication Environmental factors (UV radiations, toxins etc) Errors in meiosis What happens when those mutations are favorable in the environment? o Organism survives, reproduces, and passes on mutation What happens when they are not favorable? o Organism usually doesn’t survive, doesn’t reproduce, and the mutation slowly disappears Evolution of species Organisms are evolving over time o Genetic variation is random o Natural selection leads to variations surviving in a population Evidence of Evolution Observed evolution in the laboratory o Elena and Lenski experiment o Many other studies on rapidly reproducing species have been done Guppies were transplanted from a low predation environment to a high predation one and vice versa Changes in reproduction rates and number of offspring produced were observed Example of evolutionary ecology All life uses the genetic code and the Central Dogma o Only minor variations between some species Fossil records o Demonstrates that some species become extinct o Yet there are still similarities to living organisms o Organisms have become more complex over time Anatomical similarities between species o Homologous structures between species that serve a similar function Embryonic development similarities o Embryos between species utilize some of the same mechanisms for development Ex. Humans have gill slits and a tail during development, but these disappear before birth DNA sequencing o Shows similarities between human genome and those of chimpanzees and Bonobos
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'