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BIO 182 Biodiversity

by: Paige Williams

BIO 182 Biodiversity 182

Marketplace > Arizona State University > Biology > 182 > BIO 182 Biodiversity
Paige Williams
GPA 3.88

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These notes are on biodiversity and include the different kingdoms and domains, origin of life, and evolution
General Biology 2
Class Notes
Biodiversity, evolution, kingdoms, domains
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Williams on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 182 at Arizona State University taught by Michel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Biology at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Biodiversity: Classifying Life Organisms are either prokaryotic or eukaryotic Prokaryotes   lack membrane bound organelles  unicellular (made of one cell)  lack a membrane bound nucleus  generally contain simple genomes o lack introns o less number of genes relative to eukaryotes  Eukaryotes  can be unicellular OR multi­cellular  contain membrane bound organelles  contain a membrane bound nucleus  complex genomes o introns are spliced o linear chromosomes o large number of genes 3 Domains of Life 1. bacteria 2. archaea 3. eukarya Bacteria Domain  prokaryotic  plasma membrane composed of fatty acid chains o cell walls contain peptidoglycan  gram positive vs gram negative method for dying and identifying   circular, double­stranded DNA Archaea Domain  prokaryotic   cell membrane composed of branched hydrocarbon chains o distinct from both eukaryotes and bacteria  o cell walls do NOT contain peptidoglycan  circular, double­stranded DNA  extremophiles: can live in extreme conditions  Eukaryotic Kingdom Divisions  protista o simple, mostly unicellular and have a wide variety of methods for obtaining  nutrients o slime molds, algae  fungi o unicellular or multicellular organisms o absorb nutrients from environment o yeasts, molds  plantae o multicellular, contain cell walls, obtain energy thru photosynthesis and absorption o mosses, ferns, flowering plants  Animalia o Multicellular, organized tissues, obtain nutrients by ingestion o Sponges, worms, vertebrates, insects Phylogeny trees  Roots = ancestor/ancestral lineage  Tips = descendants of ancestor  moving from root to branches is moving forward in time   phylogeny trees are hypotheses about the evolution of species o based on data Evolution  environmental factors and genetic variation cause evolution over time  o ex. Natural selection: inheritable genetic variation that introduces mutations  beneficial for survival will selectively out­compete mutations that inhibit survival How does variation occur?  Mutations in DNA o Can occur in a wide variety of ways  Errors in DNA replication   Environmental factors (UV radiations, toxins etc)  Errors in meiosis  What happens when those mutations are favorable in the environment? o Organism survives, reproduces, and passes on mutation  What happens when they are not favorable? o Organism usually doesn’t survive, doesn’t reproduce, and the mutation slowly  disappears Evolution of species  Organisms are evolving over time o Genetic variation is random o Natural selection leads to variations surviving in a population  Evidence of Evolution  Observed evolution in the laboratory o Elena and Lenski experiment o Many other studies on rapidly reproducing species have been done  Guppies were transplanted from a low predation environment to a high  predation one and vice versa  Changes in reproduction rates and number of offspring produced were  observed  Example of evolutionary ecology  All life uses the genetic code and the Central Dogma o Only minor variations between some species   Fossil records o Demonstrates that some species become extinct o Yet there are still similarities to living organisms o Organisms have become more complex over time   Anatomical similarities between species o Homologous structures between species that serve a similar function   Embryonic development similarities o Embryos between species utilize some of the same mechanisms for development  Ex. Humans have gill slits and a tail during development, but these  disappear before birth  DNA sequencing  o Shows similarities between human genome and those of chimpanzees and  Bonobos


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