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Psychology Ch2/Wk2 Notes

by: April Sapp

Psychology Ch2/Wk2 Notes 81067

April Sapp

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter of the Introducing Psychology textbook.
General Psychology (PSY 121)
Jason E. Strickhouser
Class Notes
general, intro, Pscyhology, Intro to Psychology
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by April Sapp on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 81067 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Jason E. Strickhouser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSY 121) in Psychology (PSYC) at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Chapter 2: Methods in Psychology • What is the scientific method? It is the procedure for finding truth by using empirical evidence. • Why can theories be proven wrong but not right? We can not evaluate them using the scientific method; experiments can be tested to prove them wrong, but experiments can not be tested to prove them right. • Three things that make humans difficult to study ◦ Complexity: Scientists can't explain in detail how the human brain, composed of 500 million interconnected neurons, give way to thoughts, feelings, and actions ◦ Variability: No two humans are exactly alike, ranging from thoughts to fingerprints ◦ Reactivity: Humans react differently when they know they are being observed versus when they know they are not • BUT, there are two kinds of methods that allow scientists to work around the difficulties of studying humans ◦ Methods of Observation: allows scientists to determine what people do ◦ Methods of Explanation: allows scientists to determine why people do what they do • What are the properties of a good operational definition and a good instrument? Validity, the goodness with which a concrete event defines a property. • What are some of the limits of naturalistic observation? Some things psychologists want to study don't naturally occur, and some things psychologists want to observe can only be studied by directly interacting with a person. • Why is it important for subjects to be “blind”? When people don't know the purpose behind an observation they can not behave how they think they're suppose to behave because they don't know how they should behave. • What is third-variable correlation? Two variables are correlated only because each is casually related to a third variable. • How does manipulation solve the third-variable problem? Using manipulation, one changes a variable in order to determine the correlation of casual power of the third variable. • What are the main steps in doing an experiment? 1. Manipulate the variable (independent variable). 2. Once there's one manipulated variable (exposure), we now measure another variable (aggression). This is the dependent variable. 3. Observe if the independent variable produces change in the dependent variable. • Why can't we allow people to select the condition of the experiment in which they will participate? Doing so would cause the experimental group and the control group to differ. By the experimenter selecting which group the subjects will be in the groups differ in only one way: The subject in which they will be studied. • Why is random assignment so useful and important? It allows a variety of different people to be placed in different groups to allow better accuracy of the experiment. • Why isn't external validity always necessary? Psychologists are rarely attempting to learn about the real world by replicating it in labs. Instead, they are trying to learn about the real world by experimenting to test hypotheses that were developed from theories. • What is the difference between a population and sample? Population is a complete collection of people while a sample is a small collection of people that were drawn from a population. • Why is nonrandom sampling not a fatal flaw? An experimental result can pike an overall conclusion; an experiment can be done multiple times with multiple groups of different people, and a result from a specific group of people could differ greatly from another group of people, which would prompt interest to study a theory more in depth. • How do our beliefs shape the way we think about evidence? People tend to look for evidence that confirms their beliefs rather than observing objectively. • Why is it important to consider unseen evidence? Considering unseen evidence will prompt a person to consider evidence objectively rather than subjectively. • What are three features of ethical research? 1. Informed consent (written agreement) 2. Freedom from coercion (no unethical motivation to persuade a person to participate) 3. Confidentiality (the participant's information must be kept private during a study) • What steps must psychologists take to protect nonhuman subjects? ◦ Experiments must be supervised by psychologists who are experienced in the care of laboratory animals. ◦ Must make reasonable efforts to minimize discomfort, infection, illness, and pain of animals. ◦ May use a procedure that exposes an animal to pain, stress, or privation only when an alternate is unavailable and only when the procedure contributes to the value of the study. ◦ Must perform all surgical procedures under appropriate anesthesia and minimize an animal's pain during and after surgery. • What are psychologists expected to do when they report the results of their research? ◦ Not fabricate or omit any part of the research processes ◦ Credit any researchers who contributed to the work ◦ Mention other scientists who have done related work ◦ Obligated to share their data


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