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Week 1: Lecture # 1 Notes

by: Nadelyn Lim

Week 1: Lecture # 1 Notes NUSCTX 10

Nadelyn Lim
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Lecture 1 notes Thursday 2-3 pm
Introduction to Human Nutrition
Nastaran Faghihnia
Class Notes
Carbohydrates, protein, Fats, Macronutrients, nutrition




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nadelyn Lim on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUSCTX 10 at University of California Berkeley taught by Nastaran Faghihnia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Thursday, August 25, 2016 Introduction to Human Nutrition Robert Ryan, OH: Thursdays 3-4 pm in 233 Morgan March Hellerstein, MD, PHD OH: Tuesdays 3-4 pm in 309 Morgan Book: - Smolin and Grosvenor, Nutrition: Science and Applications, 4th edition - 3 midterm exams and one cumulative final exam - Finals is Tuesday, Dec 13 from 8-9 am - Your lowest midterm score is dropped. Nutrition - Nutrition reveals the interconnection between organisms and food that provides natural energy and nutrients in order for the body to metabolize it for energy. Typical American Diet - Processed and convenient food does not give enough nutrition for the higher calorie, higher fat and higher sodium content - A typical American diet does not obtain enough whole grain, whole foods. Nutrition Terms: Essential Nutrients - the foods that are needed for the body to function optimally Fortified foods: - artificially added nutrients to food Enriched grains- artificially added nutrients specifically thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron and folic acid. Dietary Supplements- Vitamins, multivitamins, minerals, plant based substances, amino acids , or concentrates or extracts and various things that one can obtain for essential nutrients for better bodily function Classes of Nutrients: Macronutrients - Energy-yielding nutrients include the macronutrients: carbohydrates, protein and fats. - Macro= big : needed in large amounts each day. Carbohydrates = 4 kcal/gram ; 16.7 kjoules/gram Protein = 4 kcal/gram ; 16.7 kjoules/gram Fat = 9 kcal/gram ; 37.6 kjoules/gram Alcohol = 7 kcal/gram ; 29.3 kjoules/gram 1 Thursday, August 25, 2016 = Fat = more CO2 is produced when oxidation happens. Contains little oxygen so more energy is needed to break it down. Macronutrients -provides the most energy for the body to function Carbohydrates - Glycosidic linkage which is a bunch of simple sugars bound to each other. - Sugar = glucose, fructose, lactose - Glucose is the main carbohydrate form utilized in the body. - Enzymes - proteins that catalyzes chemical reactions; either making or breaking a chemical bond. - Simple sugars monosaccharides is immediately absorbed. While whole grains like whole wheat needs the enzymes first to splice the monosaccharides from the starch and then absorption. - In order to prevent the rush of raising blood sugar, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin to balance out and maintain the homeostasis in the body. - Insulin signals the tissues to absorb the sugar and away from our bloodstream. - Diabetic people have a problem regulating their blood sugar in their body. - Type 1 diabetes: Without insulin, the sugar stays in the blood and outside the body as urine - Type 2 diabetes: Too much insulin than they need. 2


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