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Crim 221-Week One Notes

by: Ashley Prososki

Crim 221-Week One Notes Crim 221 001

Ashley Prososki
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About this Document

These notes talk about the history of the Correctional system.
Survey of Corrections
Russell Dean Smith
Class Notes
corrections, history




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Prososki on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crim 221 001 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Russell Dean Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Survey of Corrections in Criminal Justice at University of Nebraska Lincoln.

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Date Created: 08/26/16
Survey of Corrections- Week 1 History of Corrections and Punishment  Way back when o Laws have been around forever o The original clans and tribes were autonomous- no centralized method of law or punishment o Vengeance and punishment were determined by individuals, tribes and clans  Sumerian Law o Recognized as the first governmental codes law, 3100 BC o Organized set of codes to punish violators o The state assumed the role of punishing violators o Replaced private vengeance used by individuals, tribes and clans  Code of Hammurabi o King of Mesopotamia 1750 BC o Code called for compensation to the victim or the family of the victim o If the offender wasn’t caught the state was responsible for the debt o Reduced intergenerational feuds and blood vengeance  Mosaic Law o Laws handed down by Moses o 1650 to 1300 BC o Very detailed code governing crime and punishment  Greeks o Greeks created a detailed model of law o Criminal law, inheritance, adoption, commerce, contracts and legal agreement o Jury system is traced back to Greece o Many times executed criminals were not buried, but left to rot as a warning to others  Draconian Law o Draco, Athenian Ruler, 621 BC o Very harsh legal code o Death penalties for minor offenses o Slavery for unpaid debts o Stoning, throwing from cliffs, binding to stakes to die o Forbidding the burial of offenders or the destruction of the person’s home  Solonian Law o Solon, Greek aristocrat. 594 BC o Recognized for correcting soci-economic inequalities o Revised the Greek criminal codes o Abolished most of Draco’s code, except the punishment for homicide  Romans o Twelve Tables of Roman law, around 450 BC o Reverted back to brutal punishments similar to Draconian Law o Death sentence for 9 of their 27 sections of law, carried out with terrible cruelty o Unfairly administered  Rich were exiled, loss of status or privately executed  Poor or slaves were impaled, crucified, killed by wild beast, used in coliseum games  Justinian Code o Emperor Justinian 1, 527 AD o Wanted to restore the Roman empire to its former glory o Undertook 40-year revision of the Roman Laws o Laws were lost in the fall of the Roman Empire o These laws were uncovered in the 11 century and widely studied in Europe o Strong influence to European Law  Middle Ages o From about 600 AD until around 1066 AD, the law of retaliation was used- eye for an eye, death for a death, etc o Violations were not only violations against the victim and the community but also against the church o Punishments were “theatrical punishments”- that is carried out as a public spectacle o Trial by Ordeal- used by the churches to substitute for jury trials  Guilt or innocence was determined by dangerous or painful testes believed to be under divine control. Escape was considered a sign of innocence o In about 1200 AD, wergild, or compensation or “atonement” for a wrong was established o Atonement was paid to the family and to the church o Mutilation  Eyes removed, tongues cut out, lips removed, hands severed, genitals cutoff  Served as a visual deterrent o Flogging- Mosaic Law limited punishment to 40 lashes  Cat-o-nine tails, Russian knot o Branding  T= Thief  B= Blasphemer  M= Malefactor  A fair mark, my lord  Branding was abolished in the late 1700’s o Torture  Racks to stretch the body  Screws to crush joints  Iron Maiden  The Pear  Torture was used on heretics or as a means to make people expose the knowledge of their own guilt, or the guilt of others o Torture in the Middle Ages was a technique for saving souls o Corporal punishment was seen as cleansing of the soul o It was said that the physical pain and suffering would free the soul from the clutches of evil o Galley Slavery  Usually a life sentence  Chained to a ship as an oarsman  Prosperous business model  French accused of refraining from executions to outfit the ships  Lasted until the late 1600’s, when ships were more efficiently powered by sails o Exile and Banishment  England transported criminals to the Americas and Australia  30,000 to America from 1718-1775  English transportation ended because public opinion was the person who was transported prospered in the new setting rather than suffered o Instant Death  Instant death was considered humane  Other forms of execution- not so much o Lingering death  The worst fate  Death preceded by torture 


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