Introduction to Psychology
Introduction to Psychology
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Date Created: 04/21/14
April 21 2014 Why Do We Sleep Restoration model sleep recharges our bodies and allows us to recover from physical and mental fatigue Evolutionarycircadian sleep models sleep increases a species chances of survival in relation to its environmental demands Sleep and memory consolidation REM rebound effect a tendency to increase the amount of REM sleep after being deprived of it Memory consolidation process by which the brain transfers information into longterm memory May be enhanced during REM sleep Sleep Disorders Insomnia chronic difficulty in falling asleep staying asleep or experiencing restful sleep Restless leg syndrome urge to move one39s leg or other body parts while attempting to sleep Narcolepsy extreme daytime sleepiness and sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks Cataplexy a sudden loss of muscle tone often triggered by excitement and other strong emotions Genetic predisposition No cure managed through medication REMSleep Behavior Disorder RBD the loss of muscle tone that causes normal REMsleep paralysis is absent SleepWalllting Occurs during stage 34 sleep Typically have no memory of the event later Occurs in 1030 of children 5 of adults Somniloquy Sleeptalking Night terrors frightening dreams that arouse the sleeper to a nearpanic state Common during stages 34 More intense than nightmares Sleeper typically does not remember the event later Occurs in 6 of children 12 of adults Sleep apnea people repeatedly stop and restart breathing during sleep The Nature of Dreams When do We dream Dreams can occur during any sleep stage Hypnagogic state the transitional state from wakefulness through early stage 2 sleep Visual hallucinations are common Dreaming most often occurs during REM sleep What do the dream about Most dreams are not as strange as they are stereotyped to be Commonly contain negative content Gender differences Cultural background life experiences and current concems can shape dream about Freud39s psychoanalytic theory Wish fulfillment the gratification of our unconscious desires and needs Includes sexual and aggressive urges that are too unexpected Manifest content the surface story Latent content the dream39s disguised psychological meaning Dream Work the process by which a dream39s latent content in transformed into the manifest content Activationsynthesis theory Cognitive theories Problemsolving dream models dreams can help us find creative solutions to our problems Cognitiveprocess dreams theories focuses on the process of how We dream Similarity between dreaming and Waking mental processes Daydreams significant part of the waking consciousness that provides stimulation during periods of boredom Fantasyprone personality individuals who often live in a vivid rich fantasy World that they control Most are female Other Alternations of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences Outofbody experience OBE sense of consciousness leaving one39s body Neardeath experience NDE OBE reported by people who have nearly died or thought they Were going to die Deja vu feeeling of reliving an experience that is new April 22 2014 Other Alternation of Consciousness and Unusual Experiences Deja vu feeling of reliving an experience that is new Meditation variety of practices that train attention and awareness Drugs and Brain review Drugs are carried throughout the brain by capillaries Bloodbrain barrier a lining of lightly packed cells that lets vital nutrients pass through so neurons can function Screens out many foreign substances but various drugs can pass through Agonist a drug that increases the activity of a neurotransmitter Enhances a neuron39s ability to synthesize store or release neurotransmitters Binds with and stimulate postsynaptic receptor sites Makes deactivation more difficult Examples of agonist drugs Opiates relieve pain by activating the receptor sites that receive endorphins Amphetamines cause neurons to release greater amounts of dopamine and norepinephrine Antagonist a drug that inhibits or decreases action of neurotransmitter Reduces neuron39s ability to synthesize store or release neurotransmitters Prevents neurotransmitters from binding with postsynaptic neuron Drug Tolerance and Dependence Tolerance decreasing responsiveness to a drug over time Compensatory responses reactions opposite to that of the drug increases tolerance WithdraWal occurrence of compensatory responses after discontinued drug use Substance dependence substance use that causes a person significant distress or substantially impairs that person39s life Physiological dependence Psychological dependence 0A drug can be addictive Without producing tolerance or Withdrawal People can become dependent on drugs that produce only mild withdrawal Depressants Depressants decrease nervous system activity Reduce feelings of tension and anxiety Produce a state of relaxed euphoria Can slow down vital life processes to the point of death Alocohol is the most Widely used recreational drug in many cultures Increases the activity of GABA Decreases the activity of glutamate Depresses the action of inhibitory control centers of the brain Boosts the activity of neurotransmitters such as dopamine Blood alcohol level BAL measure of alcohol concentration in body Elevated BAL impairs reaction time coordination an decisionmaking Alcohol myopia inability to pay attention to as much information as when sober Impairs the ability to think about long term consequences Expectancy Theory effects produced by expectations of how alcohol would in uence them April 23 2014 Learning Learning a relatively enduring change in an organism39s behavior or capabiities Four basic leaming processes Habituation Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational learning Behaviorism Assumes that there are laws of leaming that apply to virtually all organisms Leaming is explained in terms of directly observable events Adapting to the Environment Personal adaptation focuses on how an organism39s behavior changes in response to environmental stimuli Habituation a decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience or practice Ivan Pavlov Russian physiologist Won the Nobel Prize for his work on digestion 1904 Remembered for his experiments on basic leaming process Ivan Pavlov center developed the principles of classical conditioning Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning process in which an organism learns to associate two stimuli One stimulus elicits a response that originally was elicited only by the other stimulus Acquisition the period during which a response is being leamed Neutral stimulus stimulus that does not naturally elicit Unconditioned stimulus UCS elicits an innate response UCR Without prior learning Unconditioned response UCR Conditioned stimulus CS stimulus that through association with UCS comes to elicit Conditioned response CR response elicited by a conditioned stimulus Conditioning typically occurs over the course of many pairings but it can happen in a single trial in certain cases Classical Conditioning Forward short delay pairing Forward trace pairing Simultaneous pairing B ackward pairing Classical conditioning is strongest When There are repeated CS UCS pairings The UCS is more intense The sequence involves forward pairing The time interval between the CS and the UCS is short Extinction the CS is presented repeatedly in the absence of the UCS causing the CR to Weaken and eventually disappear Spontaneous recovery reappearance of a previously extinguished CR after a rest period and Without new leaming trials Stimulus generalization stimuli similar to the initial CS elicit a CR Example salivation may be elicited by a bell or a piano tone Discrimination a CR occurs in the presence of one stimulus but not others Example salivation may not be elicited by a Whistle Higherorder conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established CS Produces a CR that is Weaker and extinguished more rapidly than the original CR Acquiring and overcoming fear John B Watson conditioned an 11 month old boy Albert to be afraid of White rats Unconditioned stimulus loud noises Fear generalized to other white furry objects Albert was never quotfixedquot Behavioral therapies based on classical conditioning are very effective for treating phobias Exposure therapies patient is exposed to a stimulus CS that arouses an anxiety response Without the presence of a UCS allowing extinction to occur Systematic desensitization patients learn muscle relaxation techniques and then are gradually exposed to fearprovoking stimuli Aversion therapy conditions an aversion to a stimulus that triggers unwanted behavior by pairing it with a noxious UCS Apil 24 2014 Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning oftenused by advertisers to Anticipatory nausea and vomiting ANV developed by many chemotherapy patients in anticipation of a treatment session Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning behavior is in uenced by the consequences that follow it Skinner Box a special chamber used to study operant conditioning Box contains a lever on one wall A food pellet is released when the lever is pressed Reinforcement a response is strengthened by an outcome that follows it Reinforcer outcome stimulus or event that increases the frequency of a response Punishment a response is weakened by an outcome that follows it Punisher consequence that weakens decreases the frequency of a response Skinner39s analysis of operant behavior A antecedents of behavior B behaviors C consequences that follow behavior Distinguishing operant from classical conditioning Operant Behavior changes as the result of the consequences that follow it reinforcement or punishment Focuses on emitted behaviors Discriminative stimulus a signal that a particular response will now produce certain consequences Positive reinforcement occurs when a response is strengthened by the presentation of a stimulus Primary reinforcers stimuli that are naturally reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs Secondary reinforcers stimuli that acquire reinforcing properties through their association with primary reinforcers quotPositivequot and quotnegativequot refer to presentation or removal of a stimulus not quotgoodquot and quotbadquot Effective punishment Shaping reinforcing successive approximations toward a final response Chaining develops a sequence of responses by reinforcing each response with the opportunity to perform the next response Operant generalization an operant response occurs to a new antecedent stimulus or situation that is similar to the original one Continuous reinforcement every response of a particular type is reinforced EXample a rat receives food every time a lever is pressed Ratio schedule certain percentage of response Interval schedule certain amount of time must elapse between reinforcements regardless of how many responses occur Based on the passage of time Fixed schedule reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses or after a fixed time interval Variable schedule the required number of responses or the time interval varies at random around an average April 25 2014 Guest Speaker Dr Gary B Specter Your Brain and Drugs ADD drugs Amphetamines Stimulates release of catecholamines from storage sites of CNS synapses Stimulants are less effective in adults than children Abuse potential similar when injected to Cocaine Side Effects of Stimulants CardioVascular CNS Dermatologic Endocrine Gastrointestinal Genitourinary Rare Contraindications Significant hypertension Symptomatic cardiovascular disease Hyperhyoidism Glaucoma Use Within 14 days of MAO Bipolar Disorder Ecstasy MDMA 34 methelendioxymethamphetamine Properties similar to amphetamine and mescaline Feelings of euphoria wakefulness intimacy seXual Structure Toxicities Amphetamine Toxicity Toxicities Serotonergic Toxicity Serotonin Syndrome CognitiVe Effects Autonomic Effects Somatic Effects Life Threatening Side Effects Life threatening increases in heart rate and BP Increased tempDIC and rhabdomyolysis Decreased Sodium brain swelling Seizures LiVCI destruction Bath Salts synthetic cathinone Amphetamine Analog Signs of Overdose Agitated delirium Increased BP temp heart rate SWeating Pupil dilation Anxiety Violent behavior paranoia Seizures Mushrooms Poisoning occurs frequently serious toxicity is uncommon 10000 species Less Serious Acute symptoms occur lt6 hours after ingestion Acute gastroenteritis CNS Effects Somulence Coma Hallucinations Cholinergic Poisoning Ingestion of muscarine Decreased heart rate SWeating SaliVation Tearing Wheezing Incontinence Delayed Symptoms gt6 hours More serious and potentialy fatal Acute gastroenteritis delayed progressing to renal failure Delayed liver failure most in the Amanita species death in 47 days Delayed rhabdomyolysis Neuropsychiatric effects Heightened perception of sensory input Distorted sense of time Euphoria Being an observer outside ones body Enhanced spiritual Cannabis Most commonly used illegal substance Worldwide Delta9tetrahydrocannabinol THC is the active ingredient quotThe Highquot Euphoric Decrease anxiety alertness depression and tension Side effects Cognitionpsychomotor function Lasts 1224 hours Decreased reaction time Decreased attention and concentration Decreased short term memory Decreased risk assessment Interferes with ability to complete complex tasks Cannabis Use Disorder Recurrent failure to fulfill rules Persistent social problems Recurrent legal issues Dependence WithdraWal Tolerance Continued use despite a health problem Great deal of time spent obtaining cannabis or recovering from its effects Withdrawal Fatigue YaWning Hypersonic Drug Testing Urine 710 days in casual user 24 Weeks in heavy user Months in chronic heavy user Chapter 5 Sensation and Perception l Transduction Sensory receptors must translate the information into the only language your nervous system understands the language of nervous system understands the language of nerve impulses 2 Feature detectors specialized neurons break down and analyze the specific features of the stimulus 3 Compared with previously stored information 4 Recognize stimulus and give it meaning Sensation stimulus detection process by which our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain Perception making quotsensequot of what our senses tell us is the active process of organizing this stimulus input and giving it meaning Sensory Processes Transduction process whereby the characteristics of a stimulus are converted into nerve impulses Psychophysics studies relations between the physical characteristics of stimuli and sensory capabilities First concem absolute limits of sensitivity Second concern differences between stimuli Stimulus Detection The Absolute Threshold Absolute threshold lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected 50 percent of the time the lower the threshold the greater sensitivity Decision criterion standard of how certain they must be that a stimulus is present before they will say they detect it Signal detection theory is concerned with the factors that in uence sensory judgments The Dyference Threshold Difference threshold just noticeable difference is defined as the smallest difference between two stimuli that people can perceive 50 percent of the time Weber39s law difference threshold is directly proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus With which the comparison is being made and can be expressed as a Weber fraction Humans are highly sensitive to differences in the pitch of sounds but far less sensitive to loudness differences Sens0ry Adaptation Sensory adaptation diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus Vision Electromagnetic energy light Waves are measured in nanometers nm or one billionth of a meter Our visual system is sensitive only to Wavelengths extending from about 700 nanometers red down to about 400 nanometers blueviolet The Human Eye Cornea transparent protective structure at the front of the eye Pupil behind comea an adjustable opening that can dilate or constrict to control amount of light that enters the eye Iris control pupil39s size low levels of illumination cause the pupil to dilate Lens elastic structure that becomes thinner to focus on distant objects and thicker to focus on nearby objects reverses image from right to left and top to bottom Retina multilayered lightsensitive tissue at the rear of the uidfilled eyeball Myopia nearsighted eyeball is longer than normal Hyperopia farsightedness focus on point behind retina Ph0t0recept0rs The Rods and Cones Rods function best in dim light are primarily blackand white brightness receptors found throughout retina except fovea Cones color receptors function best in bright illumination Fovea small area in the center of the retina that contains no rods but many densely packed cones Bipolar cells synapse with a layer of about 1 million ganglion cells Ganglion cells axons are collected into a bundle to form the optic nerve Visual acuity ability to see fine detail densely packed cones have their own private line to a single bipolar cell in the fovea and periphery of retina Visual Transduction From Light Waves to Nerve Impulses Photopigments rods and cones translate light waves into nerve impulses through action of protein molecules photopigments Absorption of light changes the rate of neurotransmitter release Brightness Vision and Dark Adaptation Dark adaptation progressive improvement in brightness sensitivity that occurs over time under conditions of low illumination Color Vision The Trichromatic Theory Young Helmholtz Trichromatic theory there are three types of color receptors in the retina by Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz individual cones are most sensitive to Wavelengths that correspond to either blue green or red if all three cones are equally activated a pure White color is perceived YelloW redgreen color blindness can perceive yellow color afterimage OpponentProcess Theory Hering s opponent process theory proposed that each of the three cone types responds to two different Wavelengths by Ewald Hering Blue or Yellow Red or Green Black or White Dual Processes in Color Transduction Dual process theory combines the trichromatic and opponent process theories to account for the color transduction process Different ratios of activity in blue green and redsensitive cones can produce a pattern of neural activity that corresponds to any hue in the spectrum Ganglion cells in the retina respond in an opponent process fashion ColorDeficient Vision Trichromats people with normal color vision Dichromat person who is colorblind in only one of the systems blueyellow or redgreen Monochromat sensitive only to the blackWhite system and is totally colorblind Analysis and Reconstruction of Visual Scenes Retina optic nerve9thalamus9various parts of cortex such as primary visual cortex Feature detector fire selectively in response to visual stimuli that have specific characteristics Visual association cortex features of the visual scene are combined and interpreted in light of our memories and knowledge Neurons in the brain respond selectively not only to basic stimulus characteristics but also to complex stimuli that have acquired special meaning through experience April 21 2014 Chapter 6 States of Consciousness The Puzzle of Consciousness Characteristics of Consciousness Consciousness our momenttomoment awareness of ourselves and our environment Subj ective and private Dynamic ever changing Self re ective and central to our sense of self Selective attention process that focuses awareness on some stimuli to the exclusion of others Measuring States of Consciousness Selfreport measures directly ask people to describe their inner experiences but are not always verifiable or possible to obtain Behavioral measures record among other things performance on special tasks objective but require us to infer the person39s state of mind Physiological measures correspondence between bodily processes and mental states EEG brain wave Levels of Consciousness The Freudian Viewpoint Sigmund Freud39s three levels of awareness Conscious mind contains thoughts and perceptions of which we are currently aware Preconscious mental events are outside current awareness but can easily be recalled Unconscious events cannot be brought into conscious awareness under ordinary circumstances Is repressed kept out of conscious awareness because it would arouse anxiety guilty or other negative emotions The Cognitive Viewpoint Cognitive psychologists disagree that unconscious mind are repressed con icts but they view conscious and unconscious mental life as complementary forms of information processing that work in harmony Controlled conscious processing conscious use of attention and effort More exible and open to change Automatic unconscious processing can be performed without conscious awareness or effort Routine actions or very well leamed tasks Reduce our chances of finding new ways to approach problems Perfor1ned faster and better Divided attention capacity to attend to and perform more than one activity at the same time Unconscious Perception and In uence Visual Agnosia Prosopagnosia visually recognize objects but not faces Their brains are recognizing a difference between familiar and unfamiliar stimuli but this recognition doesn39t reach conscious awareness Blindsight Blindsight blind in part of their visual field yet in special tests respond to stimuli in the field despite reporting that they can39t see those stimuli Priming Priming exposure to a stimulus in uences how you subsequently respond to that same or another stimulus The Emotional Unconscious Emotional and motivational processes also operate unconsciously and in uence behavior Why Do We Have Consciousness Consciousness awareness provides a summary a single mental representation of what is going on in your world at each moment and it makes this summary available to brain regions involved in planning and decision making Consciousness helps us override potentially dangerous behaviors governed by impulses or automatic processing Consciousness also allows us to deal exibly with novel situations and helps us plan responses to them Consciousness coupled with communication to enable us to express our needs to other people The Neural Basis of Consciousness Windows to the Brain Primary visual cortexgt Parietal lobe carries information to support the unconscious guidance of movements Primary visual cortexgt Temporal lobe carries information to support conscious recognition of objects Masking control whether people perceive a stimulus consciously or unconsciously Consciousness as a Global Workspace There is no single place in the brain that gives rise to consciousness The mind as a collection of largely separate but interacting information processing modules that perform tasks related to sensation perception memory movement planning problem solving emotion and so on Consciousness is a global workplace that represents the unified activity of multiple modules in different areas of the brain Circadian Rhythms Our Daily Biological Clocks Circadian rhythms daily biological cycles Keeping Time Brain and Environment Suprachiasmatic nuclei SCN regulate most circadian rhythms located in the hypothalamus Linked to pineal gland Active during daytime and reduces melatonin from pineal gland rising body temperature and heightening alertness At night SCN neurons are inactive melatonin increase and promote relaxation and sleepiness Connected with eyes to and the lights increases SCN activity Melatonin hormone has a relaxing effect on the body Our circadian clock is biological but environmental cues help keep SCN neurons on a 24 hour schedule Freerunning circadian rhythm natural wake sleep cycle that is longer than 24 hours when there are no environmental cues of day and night was about 25 hours Early Birds and Night Owls Circadian rhythms in uence our tendency to be a morning person or a night person Environmental Disruptions of Circadian Rhythms Jet lag sudden circadian disruption cause by ying across several time zones in one day insomnia and decreased alertness Nightshift work most problematic circadian disruption for society Seasonal affective disorder SAD cyclic tendency to become psychologically depressed during certain seasons of the year Sleep And Dreaming Stages of Sleep Circadian rhythms promote a readiness for sleep by decreasing alertness but they do not regulate sleep directly Beta waves when you are awake and alert high frequency and low amplitude or height Alpha waves feeling relaxed and drowsy your brain waves slow down Stage 1 through Stage 4 Stage 1 Theta waves more irregular and slower a form of light sleep from which you can easily be awakened just a few minutes vivid images dreams sudden body jerks Stage 2 Sleep spindles periodic 1 to 2 second bursts of rapid brainwave activity Relaxed muscles breathing and heart rate are slower dreams may occur harder to awaken Stage 3 Delta waves regular appearance of very slow and large beginning of slowwave sleep Stage 4 dominated by delta waves Slow wave sleep body is relaxed activity in various parts of brain has decreased hard to awaken may have dreams Overall within 60 to 90 minutes of going to sleep you have completed a cycle of stages 123 432 At this point a remarkably different sleep stage ensues REM Sleep REM sleep Paradoxical sleep rapid eye movements REM high arousal frequent dreaming Always report a dream awakened from REM Daytime levels physiological arousal quick heart rate rapid breathing irregular brain wave Male penile erections women vaginal lubrication REM sleep paralysis muscles twitch unable to move lose muscle tone Getting a Night39s Sleep From Brain to Culture Basal forebrain brain stem regulate falling asleep Reticular formation pons regulate REM sleep REM sleep brain images Limbic system emotional nature of REMsleep dreams Primary motor cortex movement are blocked Primary visual cortex re ect the processing of visual dream images Prefrontal cortex decreased activity Season environment culture Cosleeping children sleep with their parents in same bed or room How Much Do We Sleep Newboms average 16 hours of sleep a day almost half of it in REM We sleep less REM sleep decreases dramatically during infancy and early childhood Time Spent in stages 3 and 4 declines Individual differences in amount of sleep occur at every age Do We Need Eight Hours of Nightly Sleep Genetic and nongenetic factors Sleep Deprivation Mood suffered most then cognitive and physical performance We do not make up all the sleep time that we have lost Why Do We Sleep Sleep and Bodily Restoration Restoration model sleep recharges our rundown bodies and allows us to recover from physical and mental fatigue As adenosine accumulates it inhibits brain circuits responsible to slow down because too much cellular fuel has been burned During sleep our adenosine levels decrease Sleep as an Evolved Adaptation Evolutionary Circadian sleep models emphasize that sleep39s main purpose is to increase a species chances of survival in relation to its environmental demands Predator or prey Food requirements Defense from attack Conserve energy metabolic rate is about 10 to 20 percent slower than during waking rest Sleep and Memory Consolidation REMrebound effect tendency to increase the amount of REM sleep after being deprived of it Memory consolidation a gradual process by which the brain transfers information into long term memory Sleep Disorders Insomnia chronic difficulty in falling asleep staying asleep or experiencing restful sleep Stimulus control conditioning your body to associate stimuli in your sleep environment With sleep rather than with Waking activities and sleeplessness Narcolepsy extreme daytime sleepiness and sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks that may last from less than a minute to an hour Cataplexy sudden loss of muscle tone often triggered by excitement and other strong emotions Stimulant drugs and daytime naps REMsleep behavior disorder RBD loss of muscle tone that causes normal REMsleep paralysis is absent act out dream have injured themselves or their sleeping partners SleepWalking Usually occurs during stage 3 or stage 4 Stare blankly and are unresponsive to other people Vaguely conscious of the environment Often return to bed and Wake up with no memory in next moming 1030 of children less than 5 of adults Inherited stress alcohol illness medications Psychotherapy Nightmares bad dreams occur more often during REM sleep Night terrors frightening dreams that arouse the sleeper to a nearpanic state Most common during sloW Wave sleep stage 3 and 4 More intense greatly elevated physiological arousal Heart rate may double or triple Has no memory of episode 6 children 12 adults Sleep apnea repeatedly stop and restart breathing during sleep Stoppages for 20 to 40 seconds or 12 minutes The Nature of Dreams When Do We Dream Hypnagogic state transitional state from wakefulness through early stage 2 sleep mental activity became less quotthoughtlikequot and more quotdreamlikequot Our REM dreams are more likely to be vivid bizarre and storylike than NREM dreams What Do We Dream About Most take place in familiar settings and often involve people We know Most dream involved negative emotions Our life experience and current concems Why Do We Dream Freud39s Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud Wish fulfillment gratification of our unconscious desires and needs Sexual and aggressive urges Manifest content surface story that the dreamer reports Latent content psychological meaning Dream Work Freud39s term for the process by which a dream39s latent content is transformed into the manifest content Cognitive Theories Problem solving dream models dreams are not constrained by reality they can help us find creative solutions to our problems and ongoing concerns Cognitiveprocess dream theories focus on the process of how We dream and purpose that dreaming and waking thought are produced by the same mental systems in the brain rapid shifting of attention Activation Synthesis Theory Activationsynthesis theory dreams do not serve any particular functionthey are merely a by product of REM neural activity dreams can have meaning but they serve no special function So Why Do We Dream Neurocognitive theories acknowledge that motivational factors our needs and desires can in uence how the brain attaches meaning and emotion to the neural activity that underlies our dreams DrugInduced States Drugs and the Brain Bloodbrain barrier special lining of tightly packed cells that lets vital nutrients pass through so neurons can function screens out many foreign substances HoW Drugs Facilitate Synaptic Transmission lst neurotransmitters are synthesized inside presynaptic sending neurons and stored in vesicles 2nd they are released into the synaptic space Where they bind with and stimulate receptor sites on postsynaptic receiving neurons 3rd neurotransmitter molecules are deactivated by enzymes or by reuptake Agonist drug that increases the activity of a neurotransmitter enhance a neuron39s ability to synthesize store or release neurotransmitters bind with and stimulate postsynaptic receptor sites make deactivation more difficult such as inhibiting reuptake Opiates morphine codeine pain relievers endorphins Amphetamines boost arousal and mood by causing neurons to release greater amounts of dopamine and norepinephrine and by inhibiting reuptake HoW Drugs Inhibit Synaptic Transmission Antagonist drug that inhibits or decreases the action of a neurotransmitter reduce neuron39s ability to synthesize store or release neurotransmitters prevent a neurotransmitter from binding with the postsynaptic neuron Antipsychotics treat schizophrenia dopamine released by presynaptic neurons is blocked and cannot get in and the schizophrenic symptoms usually decrease Drug Tolerance and Dependence Tolerance decreasing responsivity to a drug due to repeatedly drug used Homeostasis maintain a state of optima physiological balance Compensatory responses reactions opposite to that of the drug Withdrawal occurrence of compensatory responses after discontinued drug use Learning Drug Tolerance and Overdose Classical conditioning Drug Addiction and Dependence Substance dependence drug addiction maladaptive pattem of substance use that causes a person significant distress or substantially impairs that person39s life Physiological dependence drug tolerance Withdrawal symptoms Psychological dependence strongly crave a drug pleasurable effects Misconceptions about Substance Dependence The drug39s pleasurable effects often produced by boosting dopamine activity play a key role in causing dependence Drug users quit and using again Genetic predispositions religious beliefs family and peer in uences and cultural norms Depressants Depressants decrease nervous system activity reduce tension and anxiety and produce euphoria moderate doses slow down vital life processes to point of death high doses Alcohol Most Widely used Increasing activity of GABA brain39s main activity of glutamate major excitatory neurotransmitter boost dopamine which produce feelings of pleasure and euphoria disorganized thinking and physical coordination fatigue Blood alcohol level BAL measure of alcohol concentration in body reaction time coordination decision making Alcohol myopia shortsighted thinking caused by the inability to pay attention to as much information as when sober Barbiturates and Tranquilizers Sedatives and relaxants Depress the nervous system by increasing the activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA Widely overused Tolerance and physical dependence Trigger initial excitation followed by slurred speech loss of coordination depression and memory impairment high doses Unconscious coma death Overdoses Stimulants Stimulants increase neural firing and arouse the nervous system increase blood pressure respiration heart rate overall alertness elevate mood to the point of euphoria heighten irritability Amphetamines reduce appetite and fatigue decrease need for sleep reduce depression Widely overused Increase dopamine and norepinephrine activity Tolerance Increases blood pressure and can lead to heart failure and cerebral hemorrhage stroke brain damage Cocaine produces excitation a sense of increased muscular strength and euphoria increases activity of norepinephrine and dopamine by blocking their reuptake Produce vomiting convulsions paranoid delusions depressive crash tolerance increased risk of cognitive impairments and brain damage large doses Sudden death from cardiorespiratory arrest overdoses Ecstasy MDMA produces feelings of pleasure elation empathy warmth increases serotonin functioning boosts one39s mood but may cause agitation impaired memory and sleep difficulties Opiates morephine codeine heroin provide pain relief and cause mood changes euphoria increase dopamine activity Coma death high doses of heroin Hallucinogens powerful mindaltering drugs that produce hallucinations LSD phencyclidine distort sensory experience and can blur the boundaries between reality and fantasy increases activity of serotonin and dopamine Marijuana most widely used and controversial drug THC tetrahydrocannabinol binds to receptors on neurons throughout the brain Cannabinoids THClike by brain increase GABA activity slows down neural activity and produces relaxing effects increases dopamine activity account for some of its pleasurable subjective effects Misconceptions about Marijuana Amotivational syndrome become unmotivated and apathetic Start using more dangerous drugs No significant dangers Can39t become dependent on marijuana From Genes to Culture Determinants of Drug Effects Biological Factors Genetic factors in uence sensitivity and tolerance to drug39s effects Psychological Factors People39s beliefs and expectancies can in uence drug reactions and drug use Personality factors Environmental Factors The setting in which a drug is taken can in uence a user39s reactions Familiar drug use setting can trigger compensatory physiological responses and cravings Cultural leaming also affects how people respond to a drug and drug consumption Hypnosis Mesmerism was a state of quotnervous sleepquot produced by concentrated attention and James Braid renamed it hypnosis The Scientific Study of Hypnosis Hypnosis procedure in which quotone person subject is guided by another hypnotist to respond to suggestions for changes in subjective experience alternations in perception sensation emotion thought or behaviorquot Hypnotic induction process that creates context for hypnosis Hypnotic susceptibility scales contain a standard series of passfail suggestions that are read to a subject after a hypnotic induction People cannot be hypnotized against their will Hypnotic Behaviors and Experiences Involuntary Control and Behaving against One39s Will Subj ectively experience their actions to be involuntary Does not involve a unique power to get people to behave against their will Amazing Feats Striking physiological effects Pain Tolerance Modifies neural activity in brain areas to alter neural functioning and reduce pain Induce release of endorphins district patients from their pain separate the pain from conscious experience Hypnotic Amnesia Hypnotic amnesia will not remember things during session Posthypnotic amnesia will not remember things after coming out of hypnosis Avoid thinking about certain information Altered state of consciousness that weakens normal memory systems Theories of Hypnosis Dissociation Theories Dissociation theories view hypnosis as an altered state involving a division dissociation of consciousness One stream responds to the hypnotist39s suggestions while the second stream the part of consciousness that monitors behaviorremains in the background but is aware of everything that goes on hidden observer SocialCognitive Theories Socialcognitive theories propose that hypnotic experiences result from expectations of people who are motivated to take on the role of being hypnotized The Hypnotized Brain Hypnotized people are not faking it
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