IPHY 3470: Week 2 - Lecture 3
IPHY 3470: Week 2 - Lecture 3 IPHY 3470
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Lazzell on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IPHY 3470 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Christopher DeSouza in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology 1 in integrated physiology at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
IPHY 3470: Human Physiology 1 Week 2 – Lecture 3 Chalkboard Talk 1. Atoms 1.House Temp (@70 degrees) 2. Molecules 2. External Change 2. Internal Change 3. Cells 3. Temp Increases 4. Tissues 4. AC Goes On 5. Organs 5. Compensation Fails 5. Compensation Succeeds 6. Organ System 6. AC Stays On 6. AC Turns Off 7. Organism (Lots of $$ to keep AC on) (Saving money w/o AC) **KNOW THIS CHART** Cell Membrane o Bilayer of phospholipids o Lipids are hydrophobic, phosphate tails are hydrophilic o Composed of CHO, lipids, proteins o More metabolically active = the more the protein it contains o Functions: o Support o Regulation of exchange w/environment o Communication o Physical isolation Cell Death o Apoptosis o Very typically regulated programmed cell death o Prevents unregulated cell growth o Prevents cells from dying (capase 3 is the pathway involved) too soon o Necrosis o O2, toxins, trauma Stem Cells o Totipotent = differentiate into any tissue o Pluripotent = differentiate into a variety of cell types o Multipotent = came from bone marrow and gives rise to blood cells o Ex: endothelial progenitor cells (vascular functions/cardiovascular disease) THE CELL Compartments o Intracellular fluid (inside the cell) o Extracellular fluid (outside the cell) o Fluid compartments = intracellular, interstitial, & plasma o Internal components: o Nucleus o Cytoplasm à cytosol à membranous organelles à inclusions Cell Membrane o Outer surface of cells o Bilayer of phospholipids with protein molecules inserted in them o Cell membrane = plasma membrane = plasmalemma General Functions of Cell Membrane 1. Physical isolation: provides a barrier that separates intracellular fluid inside the cell from the compartmental extracellular fluid 2. Regulation of exchange w/environment: cell membrane controls the flow of ions and nutrients into the cell, eliminates wastes and releases substances produced by the cell 3. Communication: cell membrane contains proteins that allow the cell to recognize and respond to different molecules or to change in its external environment. Alteration in the cell membrane can significantly impact cell function 4. Structural support: cell membrane holds the cytoskeleton in place. The cytoskeleton provides internal structural scaffolding. Membrane proteins on the external wall creates junctions between neighboring cells or the extracellular matrix (material synthesized & released by the cell) Cell Membrane: Composition o All composed of: lipids, proteins, carbohydrates o Phospholipids with hydrophilic heads facing aqueous environment inside and outside the cell, hydrophobic tails point towards the center of membrane o The ratio of these biomolecules can vary widely, depending on the source of the membrane o The more metabolically active, the more protein it contains o 3 main types of lipids: o phospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol o Glycerol phosphate head is polar – faces towards the water ; fatty acid tail is nonpolar – facing away from the water o Cholesterol + phospholipids = lipid bilayer o Sphingolipids + carbs = glycolipids o Carbs + proteins = glycoproteins o 3 structures produced: o Bilayer o Micelle: small droplet, interior contains the fatty acid tails o Liposome: larger sphere with a liquid core Types of Biomolecules o Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleotides & nucleic acids o Carbohydrates: o Most abundant; made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen o Simple; monosaccharides (glucose, ribose) o Complex; polysaccharides (glycogen, starch) o Lipids: o Carbon & hydrogen (little oxygen) o Structurally diverse: eicosanoids, steroids, phospholipids, triglycerides (glycerol - backbone, fatty acid chains), saturated & unsaturated o Synthesized from cholesterol o Regulators of: § Reproduction, growth & development, metabolism, stress o Proteins: o 20 amino acids total make up all proteins o 9 essential amino acids must be obtained from the diet § Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Theronine, Tryptophan, & valine Cytoskeleton o Structure: o Microfilaments o Intermediate filaments o Microtubules o Determines: cell shape, intracellular organization, transport, assembly into tissues, & movement Cytosol o Inclusions: o Protein fibers o Actin fibers (thin) o Intermediate filaments o Organelles – subcellular compartments separated from the cytosol by 1 or more phospholipid membranes Organelles: Mitochondria o Mitochondria are responsible for producing most of the energy that's needed for our cells to function o Most energy (ATP) production in cell o Unique mitochondrial DNA o Capable of replication (“budding”) o E.g. in exercise-trained muscles o More mitochondria in cells w/high energy demands o E.g. muscle cells o A mitochondrial disease can shut down some or all the mitochondria, cutting off this essential energy supply Organelles: Endoplasmic Reticulum o Function: biomolecule synthesis, storage & transport o ER – detox in liver, kidney o Calcium storage in muscle cells o Rough: o Protein synthesis o Ribosomes on surface make it appear rough o Smooth: o Fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid tails) o Lipid synthesis (phospholipids) o Steroid synthesis (cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone) Organelles: Golgi Complex o Modifies proteins made by the rough ER “packages” proteins into vesicles for transport to cell membrane o Vesicles: lysosome, storage, secretory o Lysosomes o Contain “digestive” enzymes o Break down old organelles & cell components o Garbage disposal of the cell o Peroxisomes o Isolate “hazardous” chemical reactions in the cell o Degrade toxic molecules Cellular Apoptosis Caspase Pathway o PI-3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway plays a key role in regulation capase- mediated apoptosis o Activation of Akt à downstream of protein Bad à sequestration of Bad via a14-3-3 complex o Non-phosphorylated Bad translocates to the mitochondria and inhibits expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 o Inhibition of Bcl-2 promotes release & activation of downstream mitochondrial-associated pro-apoptotic proteins, such as cyto-c, resulting in capase-mediated apoptosis