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World Civilizations: Week 1 & 2

by: Alyssa Taranto

World Civilizations: Week 1 & 2 Hist 101

Alyssa Taranto
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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About this Document

These notes cover Stone Age, Mesopotamia, Sumer, and Egypt.
History 101: The World Before the 1500s
Jordan Begnaud
Class Notes
WorldCivilizations, history, Egypt, Sumer, mesopotamia, StoneAge, Civilizations, WorldCivilizations101




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Taranto on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 101 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Jordan Begnaud in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see History 101: The World Before the 1500s in World Civilization at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 08/26/16
World Civilizations 101 8­25­16 Terms Culture­ a way of life of a human group,  includes all learned and standardized  behaviors that one uses and others in that  group expect and recognize Civilization­ a kind of culture which  Note:  includes a use of writing, presence of cities,   = important wide political organization, and the  ~  = approximately development of occupational specialization  All cultures/societies have needs in common 1. Need to make a living (provide food, shelter, and offspring) 2. Law and order 3. Protect against external threats (such as army protects from invasion) 4. Social organizations  5. Knowledge and learning (a way to preserve knowledge in order to pass it on) 6. Self expression (through art, music, literature, etc.) 7. Religious expression (through a specific religion or through philosophy)  Cultures/societies are ever­changing ̶ Always being positively and negatively influenced by many factors ̶ The environment is also a big influence Stone Age – The Era of Pre­history  Called the stone age because all weapons were made from stone during this era  Paleolithic period­ meaning “old” (old stone age)  Neolithic period­ meaning “new” (new stone age) Paleolithic Neolithic  Hunter/gatherer lifestyle  Developed an agricultural lifestyle  Generally practiced nomadic life (moved to  Majority of food and supplies came from  new area when food ran out) farming and agriculture  Family was the basic unit  Made civilization possible by food surplus   Some families would band together to form (made stability possible) no longer had to  tribes or clans  Egalitarian society­ equality; no social  travel to live   People began to settle and were able to  classifications, no superior or inferior  provide for larger populations groups  Villages and cities arose  Not many distinctions among people  Specialized occupation arose as a result of   Males would typically hunt while females  larger population  would gather and care for children  Began to domesticate animals in order to   Horticulture­ they discovered planting but it obtain things such as meat, milk, wool, etc. was small scaled and it never became  easily  important to their society  Organized fighting; village began to   The most important development in this  engage in warfare and would build walls period is language/communication which   Encouraged spread of disease   Epidemic emerges due to large populations allowed for organization and sophistication  They believed in life after death (this is  being isolated  Hierarchy started; warriors and priests  indicated by valuables they believed would  were considered higher class than others  go with them to the after­life which were   Warriors would protect and were believed  found buried with their bodies in ancient  to have communication with the gods  Wealth, poverty, and slavery arose burial cites  Ancient city of Jericho was one of the first  Neolithic populations ~2500 people Mesopotamia – The First Civilization   Meaning “land between rivers” ̶ Between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Sumer  People would migrate to Sumer and became known as Sumerians   Self governed, common language and culture very sophisticated, created first form of writing known as Cuneiform (meaning wedge shaped) made imprints in soft clay tablets and bake it  to make a permanent documentation  ̶ Pictographic­ meaning that they used symbols to represent certain things  ̶ Used in recording river conditions  ̶ Tigris and Euphrates were very unpredictable and would flood often ̶ Sumerians were the first irrigation pioneers, used flood waters in farming   Invented the wheel and bronze   Bronze replaced stone in building tools signaling the end of the Stone Age  First astronomers and mathematicians   Knew the earth was round and that the earth orbited the sun  Used units of 60 to count/measure (we still use this method today in telling time)  World’s first epic of literature: Epic of Gilgamesh ̶ an epic includes a hero that embodies the ethical and moral standards and is well respected  by a certain people   not many geographical barriers, left them vulnerable to invasion ̶ groups that invaded would take up the Sumerian way of life ̶ A king named Sargan invades Sumer and imposes central government and unites the region   They were semantic people meaning that they spoke similar language ̶ Indo­European meaning a mixture of European, Indian, and sometimes Iranian language  Sumer was invade by Babylonian who created an even larger empire, uniting all of  Mesopotamia ̶ The great king of the Babylonians was King Hammurabi ̶ Established trade and known for their wealth and prosperity  ̶ Created one common law for all of Mesopotamia  ̶ Imposed new religion, introduced the god, Marduk, the “god of gods” ̶ Imposed a code of laws named the “Code of Hammurabi”   the first justice system, composed of consistent laws and punishment  not necessarily fair, slaves and lower class people were punished more severely than  higher class people   “eye for an eye” type of laws, punishments are proportional to crime committed for  example a murderer would be sentenced to death  Criminals would go before a judge to testify and the judge decided whether they were guilty or not Egypt  Meaning “the gift of the river”  Northern Egypt is considered Lower Egypt and Southern Egypt is Upper Egypt  The Nile was the most important influence in Egyptian civilization ̶ Nile would flood every September, very predictable ̶ Once it would recede and leave a rich sediment causing agriculture to be abundant ̶ Abundant source of fish and foul ̶ A trade route and allowed for the unity of all of Egypt since it was near the center of Egypt  This allowed for a strong central government ̶ The river flows South to North rather than North to South ̶ Papyrus (a paper like substance) was made from reeds, that people would pick and weave  together to create scrolls, which were found growing near the Nile  This replaced Cuneiform (imprints in clay) tablets as the most popular form of  documentation  Became one of the most popular trade goods  Egypt has many natural barriers which kept them mostly isolated and protected  The government was centered on the Pharaoh (Egyptian King) ̶ Pharaohs were believe to be gods, all powerful, divine  ̶ They owned everything and everyone in Egypt ̶ First Pharaoh was Menes – 3100 BC  Credited with founding Egypt  Egyptian religion was polytheistic (meaning they worshiped many gods) ̶ Osiris was the fertility god and was associated with the Nile (said to be the reason  behind the rich sediment left behind after the Nile flooded every year) ̶ Said to have been murdered by his brother Seth who cut up his body and scattered the pieces in the Nile river ̶ Osiris’s wife, Isis, gathered the remains and put Osiris back together  ̶ They had a child named Horus who was the god who kept communication between  the god and human world Egyptian History  Old Kingdom ~2715 BC ̶ Pharaoh was held highest in this period ̶ Pyramids were most elaborate in this period  Tombs for the Pharaoh’s and their family which also held the family’s valuables  which were meant to follow them to the after­life  Slaves built the pyramids, on average it would take about 20 years to finish  construction of a single pyramid  Mummification was used to preserve the bodies before they were buried in the  pyramid ̶ 95% of the population were peasant farmers ̶ Social Nobility  Commoners had a chance to rise up in social class if they exhibited a special  skill or talent  Middle Kingdom ~2080 BC ̶ Stable Pharaohs, stressed their role as protectors of the people ̶ Less and smaller pyramids build in this period ̶ Paid more attention to larger scaled projects such as irrigation ̶ The Middle Kingdom comes to an end because of an invasion in 1640 BC by the  Hyksos  Hyksos came from Palestine region  They invaded and occupied lower Egypt (Northern Egypt)  Hyksos introduced bronze to Egypt  New Kingdom ̶ Hyksos were driven out of Egypt ̶ Egypt had reached its peak of power and prosperity and began to decline ̶ The Egyptian Empire included all of Egypt and part of Syria ̶ Pharaoh Amenhotep II  Had an idea to reform Egyptian religion  Replaced all the gods with one god, Aten, the sun god  Devoted his work to Aten and changed his name to Akhenaten which means  “servant of Aten”  He was ultimately unsuccessful, after his death people went back to  worshiping the old gods  Some believe, however, that Amenhotep’s ideas had an influence on the  ancient Hebrews who were monotheistic (worship of only one god) ̶ Hittites  A group named the Hittites were expanding and encountered Egypt, Hittites  originated in present day Turkey  A battle called the Battle of Kadesh broke out and both sides fought until there was a standstill   Instead of continuing the war, they decided on an alliance by which they  would come to each other’s aid if one of them were attacked  Because of the alliance, there was peace, intermarrying, and cultural exchange  Later on both empires were weakened by massive invasions by people who  came from the sea  The invaders were an unknown people and were referred to as Sea Peoples  and were believed to have come from Greek islands  Egypt loses its empire and is back to just being Egypt  The Sea Peoples did not establish an empire but did intermarry in Egypt and  shared their culture


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