PHIL 112 Notes 8/26/16
PHIL 112 Notes 8/26/16 PHIL 112
Popular in Making Sense of Ourselves
Popular in Philosophy
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 112 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Martin Glazier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Making Sense of Ourselves in Philosophy at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
Reviews for PHIL 112 Notes 8/26/16
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 08/26/16
PHIL 112 Notes 8/26/16 - Socrates: introduced ethics to philosophical topics- before, philosophers mostly discussed metaphysics o Introduced philosophical method: elenchus o Focused on questions of “What is x”? o Lived in Athens, which was democratic and mostly peaceful, but at end of Socrates’ life there was more turmoil o Plato= one of Socrates’ students/followers o Convicted on counts of impiety - Relationship between Socrates and Plato: o Plato was son of wealthy family o Plato wrote dialogues, usually with Socrates as main character Early dialogues (including “Euthyphro”) illustrate Socrates’ method o Socrates mostly communicated orally, so depended on Plato to pass them down - Method of elenchus: o Socrates’ peer expresses belief of some kind o Socrates asks questions to extract further beliefs from peer o Peer’s answers show tensions between their beliefs o Socrates encourages revision of these beliefs o In “Euthyphro”, Socrates asks “What is piety” o Dialogue ends in aporia (confusion) because peer’s responses usually inadequate to Socrates - Euthyphro dialogue: explores meaning of piety o Do gods love something because it is innately pious or is something pious simply because gods love it? o Related to broader questions about morality o Socratic Irony: Euthyphro claims to be most knowledgeable about piety/impiety and Socrates indulges him- says he wants to learn from him Likely that Socrates does not think Euthyphro actually knows what he’s talking about - Socrates and the gods: doesn’t seem to completely buy all the stuff said/believed about the gods o Doesn’t matter what his own beliefs are in his method, only matters what Euthyphro believes - Socrates’ demands: o Euthyphro says action of prosecuting father is pious o Socrates wants to know what characteristics all tings pious share o Wants to know what specifically makes pious actions pious o What Socrates specifically wants out of Euthyphro’s answer: Socrates believes Euthyphro must already know these in order to make claim about piety General answer Unified- applies to all cases Explains why Can be used as a definition in future - Euthyphro answer #1: prosecuting unjust people is pious and not doing so is impious o Socrates objection: only gives an example, not explanation - Answer #2: What is dear to gods is pious and what is not dear is impious o Objection: Euthyphro says gods disagree about what is dear to them, so they must sometimes disagree about what is pious and impious- something can’t be both pious and impious - Answer #3: things that are pious ALL gods love and things that are impious ALL gods hate o Objection: are pious things independently/innately pious or are they pious simply because the gods love them? - Answer #4: pious things are independently/innately pious o Objection: Euthyphro says that something is god-loved because the gods love it, but things are independently pious. Doesn’t work because pious things were also said to be god-loved origninally