CSD 216: Week 1 Notes
CSD 216: Week 1 Notes CSD 216
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CSD 216 at University of Mississippi taught by Lisa Fratesi Ivy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Chapter 1 A Speech/Language Pathologist works with individuals who have impairments in: LanguageReceptive or Expressive Articulation (how sounds are made) Fluency (stuttering) Voice Hearing Speech Pathologists can work in many settings, such as: Public and private schools Hospitals Rehab centers Nursing care facilities Community clinics Adult day care centers Research laboratories Language is made up of socially shared rules that include the following: What words mean How to make new words How to put words together What word combinations are best in what situations Language is complex and dynamic Language begins at birth Receptive Language Skills What we understand o Comprehension o Retrieve words from lexicon (mental dictionary) o Preorganize sentence structure Expressive Language Skills What you say Language is a socially shared code that uses a conventional system* of arbitrary symbols to represent ideas about the world that are meaningful to others who know the same code. *Conventional, in this sense, means that both people have to understand. Language represents concepts and ideas about the world. Babies’ first words are nouns present in their environment o Mama, Dada, ball, truck, etc. What is speech? The neuromuscular process by which humans form language into a sound signal What is language? A rulegoverned codebased tool that a person uses to represent ideas Definitions to know: Respiration – coordination of a breath of air Phonation – vocal cord vibration Resonation – vibration of air in the oral and/or nasal cavity Articulation – manipulation of the air by the oral articulatories (tongue, teeth, jaw, lips) Major Domains of Language – within each domain is a form Content o Semantics (meaning of words) Conte Form nt o Phonology (sound structure of words) o Morphology (word structure) o Syntax (sentence structure) Use Use Form o Pragmatics (situational context) Content Rules of language governing the meaning of individual words and word combinations The study of the relationships between words and what they refer to Children’s first 50 words are nouns Typical child acquires 860 words per year between ages 17 Form Rules of language governing the internal organization of sentences It involves a collection of rules that specify the way and order in which words may be combined to form sentences Phonemes are the basic sound elements that can make a difference in meaning Use How people draw on language functionally to meet personal and social needs Rules of language governing how language is used for social purposes Intonation is the linguistic use of pitch used to signal the mood of an utterance Intensity is the loudness of sound Stress is used for emphasis and has been shown to aid in comprehension Rate varies with speaker’s state of excitement Use: eye contact, attention to the conversation, tone of voice, word stress It is important to note that the tone of voice is always of more importance than the words themselves. The 7 Purposes of Communication 1. Ask for something 2. Give directions 3. Converse in a social way 4. Express state of mind or feelings 5. Find out information 6. Tell stories and role play 7. Describe an even or object To help remember these, think of the phrase A Goat Can Eat Flowers Till it Dies Features of Language Acquisition Rate o The acquisition rate is extremely rapid. The first 57 years is known as the critical period. 12 months (1 year old) – first word 18 months (1.5 years old) – 50 words 24 months (2 years old) – 150300 words and uses prepositions in/on 36 month (3 years old) – 9001000 words 4860 months (45 years old) – knows animals, colors, and numbers Universality o This means that child speech development is predictable; it DOES NOT VARY. Each milestone is attained at about the same age in children all over the world. Species Specificity o This is strictly a human capacity. Human communication is symbolic, meaning it uses words to represent something else. Nonhuman communication is iconic, which means it is not as complex as human language, and they cannot combine/create new combinations or change the structure of their communication. o In other words, humans are the only animals capable of creating new words. Productivity o This describes the principle of combinations of small units or words Definitions to know: Dialects – variations of a language that evolve within a specific cultural or geographic boundary Bilingualism – speaking more than one language Codeswitching – interchanges between the two language in vocabulary and syntax Gender Differences Girls Boys Begin talking earlier Begin talking later Develop vocabulary faster Develop vocabulary slower Have 64 words at 18 months Have 56 words at 18 months Less language impairments and lower chance More language impairments and 5 times more of autism likely to have autism *One in every 68 people have autism Environment Quantity and quality of language experiences are the most influential aspect of language o Quantity – how much language the child is exposed to o Quality – the characteristics or types of words spoken to the child Language Disorders Specific Language Impairment (SLI) affects 710% of children and is the most common type of communication impairment o This basically means any language impairment that doesn’t fall into a specific category or in which the cause is unknown Developmental Disability occurs when language impairment is secondary to the primary cause, such as cognitive deficits like Down Syndrome or autism o In other words, the language impairment is caused by a preexisting condition