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CSD 216: Week 1 Notes

by: Hailey Hansen

CSD 216: Week 1 Notes CSD 216

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > CSD 216 > CSD 216 Week 1 Notes
Hailey Hansen
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About this Document

This week we covered some basic terminology, as well as what type of language is expected of a child at various ages.
Normal Development of Communication
Lisa Fratesi Ivy
Class Notes
Language, development, communication




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CSD 216 at University of Mississippi taught by Lisa Fratesi Ivy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Chapter 1 A Speech/Language Pathologist works with individuals who have impairments in:  Language­Receptive or Expressive  Articulation (how sounds are made)  Fluency (stuttering)  Voice  Hearing Speech Pathologists can work in many settings, such as:  Public and private schools  Hospitals  Rehab centers  Nursing care facilities  Community clinics  Adult day care centers  Research laboratories Language is made up of socially shared rules that include the following:  What words mean  How to make new words  How to put words together  What word combinations are best in what situations  Language is complex and dynamic  Language begins at birth Receptive Language Skills  What we understand o Comprehension o Retrieve words from lexicon (mental dictionary) o Preorganize sentence structure Expressive Language Skills  What you say  Language is a socially shared code that uses a conventional system* of arbitrary symbols  to represent ideas about the world that are meaningful to others who know the same code. *Conventional, in this sense, means that both people have to understand.  Language represents concepts and ideas about the world.  Babies’ first words are nouns present in their environment o Mama, Dada, ball, truck, etc. What is speech?  The neuromuscular process by which humans form language into a sound signal What is language?  A rule­governed  code­based tool that a person uses to represent ideas Definitions to know:  Respiration – coordination of a breath of air  Phonation – vocal cord vibration  Resonation – vibration of air in the oral and/or nasal cavity  Articulation – manipulation of the air by the oral articulatories (tongue, teeth, jaw, lips) Major Domains of Language – within each domain is a form  Content o Semantics (meaning of words) Conte  Form nt o Phonology (sound structure of words) o Morphology (word structure) o Syntax (sentence structure)  Use Use Form o Pragmatics (situational context) Content  Rules of language governing the meaning of individual words and word combinations  The study of the relationships between words and what they refer to  Children’s first 50 words are nouns  Typical child acquires 860 words per year between ages 1­7 Form  Rules of language governing the internal organization of sentences  It involves a collection of rules that specify the way and order in which words may be  combined to form sentences  Phonemes are the basic sound elements that can make a difference in meaning Use  How people draw on language functionally to meet personal and social needs  Rules of language governing how language is used for social purposes  Intonation is the linguistic use of pitch used to signal the mood of an utterance  Intensity is the loudness of sound  Stress is used for emphasis and has been shown to aid in comprehension  Rate varies with speaker’s state of excitement  Use: eye contact, attention to the conversation, tone of voice, word stress  It is important to note that the tone of voice is always of more importance than the  words themselves. The 7 Purposes of Communication 1. Ask for something 2. Give directions 3. Converse in a social way 4. Express state of mind or feelings 5. Find out information 6. Tell stories and role play 7. Describe an even or object To help remember these, think of the phrase A Goat Can Eat Flowers Till it Dies Features of Language  Acquisition Rate o The acquisition rate is extremely rapid. The first 5­7 years is known as the critical  period.  12 months (1 year old) – first word  18 months (1.5 years old) – 50 words  24 months (2 years old) – 150­300 words and uses prepositions in/on  36 month (3 years old) – 900­1000 words  48­60 months (4­5 years old) – knows animals, colors, and numbers  Universality o This means that child speech development is predictable; it DOES NOT VARY.  Each milestone is attained at about the same age in children all over the world.  Species Specificity o This is strictly a human capacity. Human communication is symbolic, meaning it  uses words to represent something else. Nonhuman communication is iconic,  which means it is not as complex as human language, and they cannot  combine/create new combinations or change the structure of their communication. o In other words, humans are the only animals capable of creating new words.  Productivity o This describes the principle of combinations of small units or words Definitions to know:  Dialects – variations of a language that evolve within a specific cultural or geographic  boundary  Bilingualism – speaking more than one language  Code­switching – interchanges between the two language in vocabulary and syntax Gender Differences Girls Boys Begin talking earlier Begin talking later Develop vocabulary faster Develop vocabulary slower Have 64 words at 18 months Have 56 words at 18 months Less language impairments and lower chance  More language impairments and 5 times more of autism likely to have autism *One in every 68 people have autism Environment  Quantity and quality of language experiences are the most influential aspect of language o Quantity – how much language the child is exposed to o Quality – the characteristics or types of words spoken to the child Language Disorders  Specific Language Impairment (SLI) affects 7­10% of children and is the most common  type of communication impairment o This basically means any language impairment that doesn’t fall into a specific  category or in which the cause is unknown  Developmental Disability occurs when language impairment is secondary to the primary  cause, such as cognitive deficits like Down Syndrome or autism o In other words, the language impairment is caused by a pre­existing condition


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