COM 220 Week 1 notes
COM 220 Week 1 notes COM 220
Popular in Foundations of Mass Communications
Popular in mass communications
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 220 at Berry College taught by Dr. Hersey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Mass Communications in mass communications at Berry College.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
WEEK 1 Notes for Mass Communication Medium – singular media – plural Text – singular piece of media, specific Mass Media – any visual communications/audio, etc. ---Journalism VS. Entertainment -they conflict each other (newspapers would be more informative than entertaining) Important because: -Pervasive -Information Source - Necessity for Democracy Freedom of the press History Of Mass Communications: - Becomes a story - History is a narrative (beginning, middle, end) - History is constructed – for what purpose? Who, why? - History has consequences. How will we construct History? o Technology – big influence, can drive big changes o Audiences – The Great Man Study of individuals (George Washington, Tom Edison) Audience is what matters Politics and Law o Economics United in the love of $$$ Technology is important when creating income. o Culture Forms of media imbedded in culture What is Communication? o Communication is the process (more than one person) of verbally and non-verbally (body language) sharing of another person’s knowledge, interests, attitude, opinions, feelings, and ideas. o Shannon and Weave Model WEEK 1 Noise –Anything that interferes Sender Encoding message Medium Decoding Receiver Feedback o Sender: media originated person o Encoding: makes it understandable o Medium: Voice, phone, internet, T.V, etc o Decoding: Has to make sense Mass Communications o Definition: The process by which an organization (not always the case, Internet) with the aid of one or more machines (computer, phone) produces and transmits (distribute) public messages that are directed at large, heterogeneous (mixed) and scattered audiences. Internet is a distributor- gives ability to create media and distribute it Broadcasts now being produced for small audiences who are dedicated to it How communication creates the meaning of community, culture, etc. Historical Themes o Fight for control of Media Content Culture – media hysterias How it is going to affect someone else o Demassification Going from large audiences to small ones – niche/ narrow demographic o Media Coverage – Two Things 1) Convergence of tech and content onto the web/apps 2) Business economic aspect. Media Conglament o Superman is a media property to be used by various branches – it all goes back to Warner 6 Big Major Media Corporations WEEK 1 o Disney o Time Warner o Comcast (attempted to buy TW) GE – Sold NBCUniversal o Vincom News Corp - newspaper o CBS o 21 Century Fox New Media – value solely based on potential (they don’t know how to make money) o Ex: Amazon, Twitter What is News? o News is information about a break from the normal flow of events, an interruption in the expected. o News is information people need in order to make sound decisions about their lives. About what’s interesting and what matters News is Who, what , when, where, and how Reports government, politics, policies, economics 1t amendment enforced. “Watch dog Journalism” Makes a Story Newsworthy o Timeless – Current o Impact – Affects us(audience) o Proximity – Near us o Prominence - Importance o Uniqueness- Different o Conflict/ Controversy – We like conflict o Emotional Impact – “tear jerker” Major Categories of News o News of Consequence – “information” –if only infoBankrupt- boring o News of Interest – “Entertaining” –if only entertainment24 Hour News o Infotainment – Blending of what is meant to be entertaining and informing Eco chamber - The media reports on something, another media picks up on it and reports on it and it keeps going. How the media can create untrue statistics – 85% of college students move back home after graduating??? Mean World Syndrome: People who watch local news believe crime is worse in their area (violent) American Mass Communication WEEK 1 o Timeline 1638 – First American printing press established in Cambridge, MA Spread of news of Britain and the colonies, mainly about shipments 1844 – Telegraph – invented by Samuel Morse Morse code: a sequence of dots and dashes to match letters Had to have wires which made telegraphs limited. 1839 – Photography was invented/introduced 1890s – Early motion picture Descendant of photographybegan using flexible tape. 1910s – Radio begins development Meant to replace the telegraph – wireless telegraphy Communication from ship to shore and vis versa WWII/1950s – Development and Rise of Television Compared with Radio and movies Goes from non-existent to domination in a decade. 1960s – Computer Technology 1990s – Growth of the internet Dominant medium today History of Book Publishing o Timeline 1041 – Clay bricks used in China for moveable type – Invented by Pi Sheng (printed press) 400 years prior to Gutenberg 1295 – Marco Polo brings technology back to Europe Mid -1400s – Metal Moveable Type created in Europe o Earlier books (usually religious on nature) had to be hand printed, making them rare and expensive. Plus most people couldn’t read o In order to use printing presses, copper sheets had to be engraved with images of each page o Gutenberg’s press used moveable metal type, so the type was simply rearranged for each new page. Gutenberg printed the Bible (first written in German) Illustration was still added after printing of the text People could begin to interpret the bible in their language Mid – 1400s – Books printed and sold Bookshops became important cultural centers 1500s – English monarchy establishes prior restraint and licenses printers. Prior restraint: Early form of censorship prior to printing Licenses printers: Printer’s info was included on the document WEEK 1 Colonial Publishing o Timeline 1638 – 1 American Printing Press established in Cambridge, MA Established by Elizabeth Glover – Produced the first material about government, what the people should do o Fireman’s Oath – First item published by the Glover Press Legal documents were important o The Press also printed the first book in America – The Bay Psalm Book Their translations of Psalms in Bible, Cambridge o Legal, government, religious were the main documents printed. 1690 – Publick Occurrences (Both Forreign and Domestick) – First multi-page newspaper in America Invented by Benjamin Harris o Kicked out of Britain for printing w/o a license. He goes to Boston and does the same thing. He is engaged in both information and entertainment in his newspaper he printed one newspaper like that 1704 – Boston News Center Letter At the time, biggest media creator John Campbell held postmaster office His newspaper was all about info 1721 – New England Courant Published by James Franklin o Tried to balance info and entertainment but sometimes leaned towards entertainment. o Went to Jail so younger brother Benjamin Franklin took over. He wants to make it balanced Made it popular Goes to Philadelphia when brother came back 1729 – Pennsylvania Gazette Ben Franklin takes over and becomes the most important newspaper in the colonies. Made him well-known. He became postmaster of Penn. Because he became so popular WEEK 1 Magazines (Magasine) Things that were already printed o Developed in 17 century France o Something between newspaper and books. st 1741 – 1 American Magazines American Magazine – Andrew Bradford lasted 3 issues General Magazine – Ben Franklin lasted 6 issues Both Failures 1731 – Ben Franklin helps start “the library Company” Said he needed books for the people “low culture” texts were also imported and produced in the form of chapbooks – low quality paper o Novels the common man had – not meant to be most important 1763 – Georgia Gazette Remained a loyalist through the revolutionary war.
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