COM 220 week 2 notes
COM 220 week 2 notes COM 220
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COM 220 at Berry College taught by Dr. Hersey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Mass Communications in mass communications at Berry College.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Notes for Mass Communication WEEK 2 Publishing Pre-Revolution o Leading up to the revolution The Zenger Trial o 1735 – John Peter Zenger (in NY) printed material, which was given to him, about the governor of NY. He was charged with seditious libel Libel: Saying something false and damages the person’s reputation Sedition: (Definition back then) anytime you say something bad about the government meant something bad about the king. He was automatically guilty. Zenger’s lawyer (Andrew Hamilton) uses Jury lawification (appeals to the jury) Make the jury remember that truth should be protected by the law. Jury says non-guilty, but judge ignores and throws him in jail. This creates a rally that upsets the colonies and leads towards revolution. o The French and Indian War (1754 – 1763) Sets up the revolutionary war France and Indians vs. England fighting over land, territory, competition. England wins England was in debt – they taxed Colonies felt more secure – no worry about England Colonists fought in the war – they felt connected to the colonies not England o Pamphlets were a popular form of advocating independence 1764 – The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved - Odis the Colonists should have certain rights The Stamp Act – 1765 Something stamped on goods – had to pay for the stamp (taxes) They stamped paper which made colonial printers and Journalists and lawyers very angry. Widespread anger caused it to be repealed the following year o “Patriots vs. Loyalists” P:wanted rights L:with the crown They would write editorials about their views o Boston Massacre Propaganda – material that represents one side of the argument. o 1775 – War Starts in Lexington and Concord 5 days later, government is aware the war started Many people didn’t know why they were fighting o 1776- Common Sense – Thomas Paine Useful because it convinces the colonists to fight, gives reason Also wrote American Crisis Declaration of independence Gets published in newspaper so people could read it Publishing During the Nation’s Founding o Debate on the Constitution A lot of controversy on how powers should be balanced. Not reported in newspapers because they were afraid the discussions may tear apart the newly made independent country. o Federalists – John Adams They want strong federal government. Several wrote letters – Federalist papers – Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Pay o Anti- Federalists – Thomas Jefferson Power to states The 1 Amendment of the Constitution o The 5 rights Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Petition of the government Respect to religion Right to assemble o The president can’t suspend rights o There are parts of speech that are not constitutionally protected. Prior Restraint (speech that is banned) Rise of the Partisan Press (end of revolution – 1830) o Partisan – not using logic, saying the person is only looking at their side of the argument – political parties The Growth of the Newspaper o People wanted info and political parties funded them. 1790- 100 newspapers 1800- 235 newspapers Over doubled the amount o People wanted local news Washington (Federalist) and the Partisan Press o Anti- feds hated him ex: King George o Washington largely ignored them (the press) 2 ndpresident John Adams (Federalist) o Thomas Jefferson was the vice president – Anti- Federalist o Because of their opposing parties, they had a fallout, and the press would be used to attack each other o Adams personally did not like the press The Alien and Seditions Act – 1798 o Because of France getting to involved at the time o 1) Made it harder to become a U.S citizen o 2) Gave president the right to evict any immigrant o 3) Made it a crime to print anything negative about the government or its policies o The people were so angry that they let the law expire. Publishing during the Nation’s Founding o Increased literacy (mainly white males) and increased demand and importance of printed materials – Newspapers o Post Office of 1792 Important because it was the only way of distributing media Congress found this important for the populace Letters – rate Newspaper – cheaper because government encouraged them o Hard times for magazines 1800 – only 12 magazines But by 1825, 100 magazines Because they were already using published works, they were expensive – only available to the elite audience o Growth in Book Publishing Diversity increased st 1 Amendment – Constitution o Rights Conflict Supreme Court determines the limitations; what is protected. o Obscenity o Threat to public order (scream fire in theatre) o National Security (Edward Snowdin and Pentagon Papers) o Hate Speech Penny Press o 1830s – 1860s: a profound shift in media 1) Growth in population (immigration) 2) Increased literacy (public education) 3) Improved Transportation (Railroad, canal) 4) Technology (Steam) 5) Shift in public attitude (populism) o Newspaper pre-1830s Priced at 6 cents Targeted elite audiences Sold as subscriptions with home delivery Most newspapers did not seek out news o 1833 – New York Sun – Benjamin Day Lowered the cost to a penny Sold advertisements Sold newspapers on street corners – stories people wanted to hear Hired reporters The Moon Hoax This big hoax about seeing figures seen on the moon o Made his competitors look like idiots – they copied him when he was just playing around o 1835 –New York Herald – James Gordon Bennett More traditional, independent of politics; free voice th Journalism as the 4 Estate (3 estates in the French revolution , this is the 4 ) Competed with the Sun for sensationalist news Divided paper into different sections Used a beat system for reporters Hired correspondents: somebody who reports but is not located at the newspaper Used the telegraph o 1841 – New York Tribune – Horace Greely Crusading newspaper – try to make it national He rejected sensationalism Reported information on a national level – abolition, women’s rights “Go West Young Man” Advocate for westernization o 1851 – New York Times – Henry Raymond Wanted to publish unbiased newspapers Included literacy and other interviews (more high culture) The shift of how the newspaper is toward the elite to be available to everyone o Post – 1830 Publishing Book sales increase – textbooks Magazine circulations grow 1821 - Saturday Evening Post o Norman Rockwell (made this popular) o Scenes of everyday life 1828 – Ladies’ Magazine o Sarah Hale – advocated women’s rights o started women’s school to be teachers o 1850 – Largest circulation The Press in Pre-Civil War o 1844 – Samuel Morse invents the telegraph “What hath God wrought?” Meaning this was so mind blowing to them at the time, huge change o This era, Associated Press is created(made up of member organization, news convulsion) – “Wire Service” Has reporters, employees Gets info from large organizations and vis versa – sharing of info Pull stories from organizations TELEGRAPH o The Mexican War (1846 – 1848) America annex (steal) parts of Texas (Mexico) 1) First war to use the telegraph – troop info 2) First war to be photographed o 1839 – Louis Daguerre’s process is released to the public be France Called Daguerreotypes Several drawbacks Can’t be reproduced Fragile Highly toxic chemicals