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Art History Week 2

by: Katie Truppo

Art History Week 2 ARTH 173

Katie Truppo
GPA 3.4

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Renaissance, 13th and 14th century Italy and Netherlands
Western Art History
Aurelia D'Antonio
Class Notes
Art History
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 173 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Aurelia D'Antonio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Western Art History in Arts and Humanities at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Art History Lecture 2 August 22. 2016 Chapter 13 San Francesco: Assisi, Italy Church built to commemorate St. Francis, he was canonized 2 years after death Francis focused on poverty, most of his buildings are very small and not grand San Francesco vs Notre Dame Notre Dame has rib vaults San Francesco: Elimination of aisles allows for extra space St. Francis and the Birds Preached to the birds Represents his engagement with nature Depicted by Giotto, San Francesco in Assisi, Italy Santa Croce, Florence Open nave Pointed arches “Barn Church”: used to accommodate many people Used for tombs of rich patrons (some Kings and Queens) who paid to buried in the churches Pulpits Nicola Pisano Modeled after classical Roman sarcophagi Relief of nativity scene on side of pulpit (left) Pulpit of Sant' Andrea, Pistoia By Giovanni Pisano Giovanni’s son created the later carvings (right) Later relief (right) has more movement/shadows/emotion Often compared Giovanni (left) and Nicola (right) sculptures Florence cathedral and baptistery seen from the air. Cathedral begun 1296. Dome was not completed until 15th century Decided to add vaults instead of wood roof Pier: column with any other shape than round/smooth Plan of Santa Maria del Fiore & campanile by Giotto Andrea Pisano, South doors, baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence. 1330-36 Right: Detail of Baptism of Christ Wavy lines typically show someone is being baptized Left: Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned. ca. 1280-90 Right: Giotto,Madonna Enthroned, ca. 1310 Changes in perspective Art History Lecture 3 August 24. 2016 Arena Chapel (Scrovegni Chapel), Padua: interior, looking toward the apse. Frescoes by Giotto, 1304-06 Giotto was renowned at the time for: Way he arranged figures Creating illusion of light falling on objects Working with how shapes worked through drapery Barrel Vault: Longitudinal space not divided by arches/vaults Registers: Story field divided by location Top: Virgin Mary Middle: Life of Christ Bottom: Passion of Christ Giotto, frescoes on the altar wall, c. 1303, Arena Chapel (Annunciation) Annunciation of Mary Mary on Right God the Father painted on wooden door that is inserted Evoke icons Giotto, The Last Judgment, c. 1303. Fresco. Arena Chapel. Padua Good and Holy on left, damned on right Idea of the end of time Angels rolling up sky Cross divides good and bad Usery: lending money to others for interest, very ill thought of “profession" Giotto, Christ Entering Jerusalem, c. 1303. Fresco. Arena Chapel, Padua Piety and empathy of people with figures in painting Intense emotion Use of “light”, lighter in foreground and casts shadows in background which gives persepctive Giotto, The Raising of Lazarus, c. 1303 Reduces dramatic scenes to simple moments Giotto, The Betrayal of Christ, c. 1303 Figures facing away frame the plane and help focus on important part of scene Increase drama and focus Giotto, The Entombment of Christ, c. 1303. Fresco, Arena Chapel, Padua Emotional faces Rock formation draw attention to focus of scene Gornata: Separation into one day’s work Giotto, Nolimetangere, c. 1303. Fresco. Arena Chapel, Padua Normally Christ is in middle, the end of series has Christ on the right Dressed differently than other scenes, carries flag Motion of scene is different Palazzo Pubblico, Siena, begun 1297. Tower added after 1325 Communal government Rotation of government officials Nove (the Nine): brief periods of rule in Sienna when they lived in the palace Now used as normal Palazzo (meeting place) Ambrogio Lorenzetti, murals in Saladella Pace, 1338. Fresco. Palazzo Pubblico, Siena Where the Nine held there meetings Paintings depict good and bad government Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory of Good Government (detail), 1338. Fresco. Palazzo Pubblico, Siena Justice on left Carrying the two scales (balance of justice) Common Good on right Surrounded by virtues Peace on suit of armor, peace outweighs war Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Good Government in the City and Countryside, 1338. Fresco. Palazzo Pubblico, Siena. Depicts good things in city Safety People celebrating New architecture Good things in countryside Agriculture Hunting Safety and freedom of travel Idea that good government keeps people in countryside safe (unrealistic) Threat of punishment indicated with person hanging from gallows Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Allegory of Bad Government(detail), 1338. Fresco. Palazzo Pubblico, Siena. Cruelty Torturing child Treachery Scorpion in sheeps clothing Divison Colors or city are being cut up/divided Tyranny Averence (greed), arrogance, and vain glory around head Sins popular preached against Justice is at bottom tied up Duccio di Buoninsegna, Virgin and Child with Saints (“Maesta”), main panel of altarpiece, 1308-11. Tempera on panel. Museuo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena Cult of the Virgin: she was city’s special protecter Ducchio commissioned to paint altar piece in honor of previous idol that had protected the city 4 Saints in front are patron saints of Sienna Intercede on behalf of city to the Virgin Duccio di Buoninsegna, Maestà: scenes from the back of the main panel, 1308-11. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena Back faced the altar and the clergy Duccio di Buoninsegna, Maestà(detail): St. Catherine, 1308-11. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena. Emphasis on texture Cloth “sparkles” with levels of paint and gold Art  History  Lecture  4   August  26.2016     Left: Duccio, Christ Entering Jerusalem, from the back of the Maestà altarpiece. 1308-11. Right: Giotto, Christ Entering Jerusalem, from the Arena Chapel, Padua c. 1303 •   Depth of painting shown in figures Simone Martini, Annunciation with Two Saints, c. 1330 •   Encapsulates 14th century style ◦   Elongated figures ◦   Pointed features ◦   Figures are more stylized ◦   Bending and twisting •   Words are actually etched into paint, “word made flesh” is actually written •   Architectural elements from Gothic and French styles 2   Pietro Lorenzetti, Birth of the Virgin. 1342. Tempera on panel. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena. •   Brother of Ambrogio Lorenzetti •   Interested in volume and forms ◦   Accentuate depth •   Frame in viewer’s space divides picture plane •   Immaculate Conception: Conception of Mary Mother of God, not Jesus Chapter 14 Useful Reading: •   Introduction to Chapter 14 •   p. 479: Panel painting information 3   Naturalism •   Due to development of oil paint ◦   Blending of colors, adds to realistic features •   International styles in Netherlands drives naturalism everywhere else Claus Sluter, The Well of Moses, Chartreuse de Champmol, France. 1395- 1406. Stone. •   Commissioned by Duke of Burgundy •   End of 14th century •   Horns: ◦   Due to mistranslation in Bible, Moses was depicted with horns when it should have been rays of light •   Was painted 4   Melchior Broederlam, Infancy of Christ panels, wings of the altarpiece of the Chartreuse de Champmol. 1394-99. Tempera on panel. Musée des Beuax-Arts, Dijon, France •   Annunciation, Visitation, Presentation, and Flight from Egypt •   Architecture and building divide scene along with landscape Limbourg Brothers. Pages for January, left, and July, right, of Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. 1413-16. •   Book of Hours (calendar with pictures) 5   ◦   Labors of the month •   January depicts feast and warm clothing ◦   Brothers died before they could complete top of January page •   July depicts hard work and agriculture ◦   At the time of shift from agrarian to merchant society, there was resistance to change from farmers to merchants. Propaganda shows “good peasants” to relieve worry of nobles Façade of Bruges Town Hall. Begun 1376 •   Patronage in town centers •   Seat of the town council •   Symbol of city’s independence and privilege (windows, vaults, pointed arches) •   Exhibited rulers in sculpture form Oil painting •   Changed the way art looked ◦   Colors were more saturated ◦   More shading ◦   Produces shiny quality that shows contrast of shadows 6   Robert Campinand workshop. Mérode Altarpiece. ca. 1425-30. Oil onoak. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The Cloisters Collection •   Setting of Annunciation ◦   In a house ◦   Virgin is refined and relaxed ◦   Comforts of middle class house •   Tiny baby Jesus flying about Gabriel •   Triptych: three-part frame ◦   Divides house into different settings 7   Hubert and Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece (closed), Church of St. Bavo, Ghent, Belgium. Completed 1432. Oil on panel. •   Van Eyck was admired in Italy ◦   Considered among Italian painters to have invented oil paint ◦   Painted for people outside of country, and for towns people ◦   Signed paintings with name and dated them •   Each wing has 4 panels ◦   Includes annunciation scene in middle, donors on bottom, John the Baptist and John the Evangelist on top ◦   All set in Gothic niches 8   Hubert and Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece (open). •   Altar piece would have been closed all the time except Sunday •   Adam and Eve in top corners •   God and Christ in center, worshipers on bottom celebrating Christ’s sacrifice •   Lamb of God ◦   Symbolizes Christ’s sacrifice ◦   Ritual on altar is mass, so it is happening during the mass and in the painting 9   Left: Jan van Eyck, Man in a Red Turban (Self-Portrait?). 1433. Right: Jan van Eyck, "The Arnolfini Portrait.” 1434 •   Man in Red Turban ◦   Thought to be self portrait •   The Arnolfini Portrait ◦   Thought to be wedding portrait, could be engagement or other marriage ◦   Van Eyck signed the wall “Jan van Eyck was here" ◦   He may have been there as a witness to event which required notary ◦   Details that suggest hope to bear children (dress, bed) ◦   Fruit refers to wealth ◦   Shoes off for respect 10   Rogier van der Weyden, Descent from the Cross. ca. 1435. Oil on panel •   Van der Weyden was member of guild ◦   Painter would start as apprentice and would eventually become journeyman, and after creating own masterpiece and approved by guild the could open own shop •   Descent from the Cross ◦   Extreme emotion in physical gestures, expressions, weight ◦   Fainted Virgin body echoes Jesus’s figure being taken down from cross •   See benefits of oil paint ◦   Saturated colors ◦   Texture •   Meant to inspire devotion ◦   Guiding viewers in proper response to Christ’s sacrifice 11   Rogier van der Weyden, St. Luke Drawing the Virgin. ca. 1435-40. •   Ox represents St. Luke •   Byzantine tradition said that Luke painted many icons ◦   Proliferation of St. Luke in the act of painting 12  


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