GEOS 212 Week 1 Notes
GEOS 212 Week 1 Notes GEOS 212
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by madelinef on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOS 212 at University of Arizona taught by Joellen Russell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 260 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Oceanography in Tier 2 Gen Ed at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
GEOS 212 Week 1 Notes • What makes the Earth Special? o 70% liquid ocean and 30% land o 0.1% ocean volume and 99.9% land volume (the ocean is a very think skin!) o Livable space= 99% in ocean, 1% in land because you can only live on the surface. Ocean you can live down deep and across. • Oceans, Seas and Continents o Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Artic, and Southern oceans o North American, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica o Latitude= parallel/across o Longitude= run from the poles o Oceans are mostly deep, except on continental shelf (400km- 4,000km but shelf is 100m) • Why is Water Essential to Life? o Every living organism on earth must have liquid water in some form to live. o Every organism is composed of water o Earth is a perfect spot for liquid water in the solar system. It is not too hot or too cold. • To have life you need water!! o Earth is not too hot or too cold and has just enough gravitational pull o You also need CO2 and plants • Geology and oceanography happen over long and short periods of time • Water is the basis of All Life!! • Plate Tectonics o Why continents vs. oceans? § Ocean Crust is heavier than continental crust • Plates are moving! • Boundaries o Divergent- plates moving apart o Convergent- plats moving toward or below a plate o Transform- boundary sliding by (San Andreas Fault in California) • Divergent Boundary Spreading Center o Mid ocean Ridge o Creates oceanic crust o Plates move apart • At a spreading center, mountains are formed. • Movie- Mid Ocean Ridge o Height- 2 miles off sea floor o Length- 28,000 miles (biggest mountain range on Earth) o Water Temperature- 100 centigrade to 400 centigrade (700 degrees F) o Note- Animals live there! Tons of organisms like crabs, worms, mussels, tube worms) • Iceland- moving 2 cm/year, made of Basalt • Triple Junction o In Indian ocean, moving in 3 directions § East African Rift- Africa is being pulled apart § East Pacific Rise • Gulf of California • Sea of Cortez (turns into San Andreas) • Why Do Plates Move? o Convection- movement of 1 density fluid through another § Hot rises cold sinks § Convection cells- flow of hot and cold in a circular motion o We do not know if the convection of the earth is simple or chaotic. • How did the South Atlantic Begin to Open? o Rift beginsà Rift ValleyàLinear Sea (when the earth sinks into the ocean and water comes in. Raw Basalt forms new ocean crust)àMature Ocean • Plates are NOT defines by what they are made of but instead where they end • How do we determine where spreading began? o The age of the continental rocks at the edges o 0 would be the exact center because it is the active spreading center. • Rate of Spreading o Rate= Distance/Time o Divide by 10 to convert from km/my to cm/year § my= millions of years