Intro to Anthropology
Intro to Anthropology AN 1103
Popular in Introduction to Anthropology
Popular in Department
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessieka Little on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Darcy Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.
Reviews for Intro to Anthropology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/26/16
Intro to Anthropology Intro to Anthropology Lecture One Anthropology studies human society from two perspectives: Diachronic view: stresses development through time Synchronic view: emphasizes the contemporary state of human societies with little or no time depth The four subdisciplines of anthropology Physical/ biological anthropology The study of human biological evolution and variation between living populations Human biology/ biological anthropology - contemporary studies of comparative variability (present time, synchronic aspect) Human paleontology - paleoanthropology - comparative studies of fossil remains (past, diachronic) Primatology - the study of both living and extinct species Cultural anthropology Emphasis is behavior, with two approaches to the study of living societies 1.) Ethnography: descriptive study of human societies throughout the world (who, what, when, where) Explorers, missionaries, traders, soldiers Trained anthropologists Participant/observer Linguistic Anthropology - Language Structural linguistics (synchronic): the systematic study of the component parts of languages and their relationship - Phonology = sounds - Grammar = rules - Syntax = arrangements - Semantics Historical linguistics - how languages developed, and where they developed from ex.: romance languages Archaeology - the study of the past through material remains Provides a means to interpret past human culture and behavior that would otherwise be unknown Can help address questions about the present Lecture 2 8/22/16 Concept of Deep Time and the Immutable Universe Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656) and Sir John Lightfoot (1602- 1675) argued that the world began at 4,004 BC at 9:00 am (used Bible for calculations) Isaac de la Peyrere (1596-1676) argued that stone tools were the work of ancient people in his treatise A Theological System upon the Presupposition that Men were before Adam He was seized by the inquisition and burned and his books were burned. Thomas Hobbs (1588-1679) Philosopher, Physicist The Leviathan (1651) outlines the purpose of states and governments. Said that before this, life was nasty, brutish, and short. Catastrophism- world shaped by punctuated events, such as floods, that were responsible for the demise of extinct species Supported by French and led by George Cuvier (1769-1832) Uniformitarianism- Geologic process in the present are the same that happened in the past The English Explanation led by James Hutton (1726-1797) Christian Thomsen (1788-1865) - Hired by the director of the National Museum of Denmark to help order their artifacts 3-age system Stone Age - artifacts were made of bone, wood, etc Bronze Age - artifacts were made of copper or bronze Iron Age - most things made of metal Phillipe-Charles Schmerling (1791-1836) In 1828, he found to human-like skulls (Neanderthal) Adam Smith (1723-1790) THE Economist "Wealth of Nations" Better business will continue at the expensive of lesser businesses Laissez-Faire - "Let it Be" Markets function best when there's no intervention 1700's and 1800's Rise of mercantile class Emergence of slave trade Industrial Revolution Continued colonial expansion Thomas Malthus (1776-1834) Essay on Principal of Population As the population grows, resources become more scarce. Positive checks- hunger, disease, war will take care of pop. Preventative checks - abortion, birth control, celibacy, postponement of marriage (for poor people) Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) Co-discoverers of "natural selection" Darwin saw natural selection not as a progressive march towards superior species, but as a reaction to dynamic environments However, saw colonialism as a form of natural selection, albeit sadly at the expense of local populations. Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917) Primitive Cultures (1871) Social Darwinist Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) Influenced by Mathus Social Darwinist Coined "survival of the fittest" Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) Early American anthropologist Worked with Iroquois Ancient Society (1877) 3 stage model: savagery, barbarism, civilization Lecture 3: 8/24/16 The principle of Natural Selection: (in words of Darwin) "Struggle for existence" "Under these circumstances, favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed" Social Darwinism = cultural evolution The progress of a society through successively more complex stages Example: Morgan's "Savagery, Barbarism, Civilization" Darwinian evolution- selection operates on individuals Cultural evolution- selection operates on groups Franz Boas Founder of anthropology German and Jewish (albeit secular) Originally going to do a statistics dissertation, but instead looked at the optical properties of water Post-doc: Geography- Baffin Island Inuit (1883) 1st experience with non-western people Ideas concerning Cultural Relativism- in order to understand a culture, you have to study it on its own terms After very academic positions, became a curator at the American Museum of Natural History Critique of Cultural Evolution Supportive of Darwin, but critical of Tylor, Spencer, and Morgan 1st direct critique - Tylor's Matrilineal Clans vs. The NW Coast People 2nd Critique - The Organization of the Pacific/NW Expedition exhibit (pissed off boss, resigned in 1905) Beginning in 1899, lecturer at Columbia, where he founded the first Anthropology program in the US 3rd Critique - The Immigrant Study Convinced Immigration officials to allow him to measure 17,821 first and second generation immigrants in seven ethnic groups If someone is raised in America, they will behave like Americans Cultural Particularism: In order to understand people or cultures, you must understand the history of them Ruth Benedict and Margaret Meade - Most famous of Boas' students Benedict: Patterns of Culture Meade: Coming of Age in Samoa Alfred Kroeber (1876-1960) - Boas' student Collected both archaeological and ethnographic data on Native American groups in Mexico, New Mexico, Peru, and other areas in the American West. Julian Steward (1902-1972) Founded department of anthropology at U of Michigan Background in Zoology Interested in cross-cultural comparisons Worked with Great Basin Shoshone Cultural Ecology - environment matters Leslie White (1900-1975) The "Anti-Boas" "John Steel" - communist alias Neo-evolutionary way of getting energy Lecture 4: 8/26/16 The context of Cultural History: archaeologists trying to figure out the order of things Lewis Binford (1931-2011) Ph.D. Michigan Influenced by Leslie White to an extent Energy capture - yes Neo-evolutionary stages - no Taught at Chicago, UCLA, UNM, SMU Processual Archaeology - ARCHAEOLOGY SHOULD BE A SCIENCE One of, if not the most, influential archaeologists ever Ecology matters The Post-Modern Critique History Matters Placing people into neo-evolutionary stages strips away historical context, which is worthy of exploration Academic Discourse is messy, and oftentimes leads to strange bedfellows Breakdown the arguments into arguments/themes Visualize them as a pendulum (back and forth) Trace their intellectual path Nature vs Nurture Ethnocentrism vs Relativism Stages vs Trajectories Environment vs History
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'