HIST 1005, Chapter 1, Week 1 Notes
HIST 1005, Chapter 1, Week 1 Notes HIST 1005
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Meyer on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1005 at Louisiana State University taught by Dr. Jason Wolfe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Introduction History: story of human beings Source materials of historians: archives, newspapers, journals, records, etc. Accuracy?: not always reliable, attempts to by comparing to other source but bias is often evident Paradime: general framework of how we view something Objectivity vs. subjectivity: goal is to be as objective as possible but some subjectivity is bound to show up o Objectivity: unbiased, outside looking in o Subjectivity: biased, in Chapter 1 Notes (Ethiopia 2003) Evolutionary biologists discovered the oldest record of Homo sapiens, which consisted the bones of an adult male, partial adult, and an adolescent Proved that Homo sapiens originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago, migrating out of Africa about 100,000 years ago All people have a shared heritage Differences in culture occurred less than 20,000 years ago Hominids: mammals that stand up on two legs Evolution: process by species of adapting in response to the environment for increase in survival and reproduction I. Precursors to Modern Humans Creation Myths and Beliefs Hominids are descendants of African pongids (members of Ape family) Hindus, Muslims, Christians, and Jews found this inconceivable since they believed in a creationist story of the human origin Jews and Christians believe God created the universe from nothing in 7 days Early Hominids and Adaptation Australopithecines: (3-4 million years ago, Africa) walked on two legs, used simple tools and skilled adaptors o “Lucy”: a 3 million year old female australopithecines who was a skilled tree climber with her short legs, found in Awash Valley, Ethiopia o “Ardi”: a 3.2 million year old anthropoid, also found in Awash o Adaptation: ability to alter behavior in order to find a different way to do things Bipedalism: stood upright on two legs, leaving arms and hands open for useful tasks Good vision Opposable thumbs: allowed physical agility, enhancement in exploration, and ability to manipulate materials in order to create tools, etc. Cognitive skills: increase in observation, memory, problem-solving, language Lived in groups: increased survival due to protection in numbers and efficiency in sustenance retrieval Homo habilis: (2.5-1.5 million years ago) stood upright, brains grew larger meaning they were becoming more innovative, used tools to make other tools o Innovation: learning lessons and passing those lessons down to offspring like tool making and efficiency o Generational knowledge: knowledge learned that is passed down Homo erectus: (1.5 million years ago) larger, created more tools, cooperated in groups, had larger brains. With larger brains, the head was not able to pass through the pelvis, meaning the infant could only have a 1/3 of the brain capacity, meaning a longer period of parenting. Migrated out of Africa and into Europe and Asia The First Modern Humans Homo sapiens: “wise humans” smarter than the brutish Neanderthal Neanderthals: (100,000-30,000 years ago, located in Germany, Europe, and Middle East) more advanced tool makers, buried the dead, creation of art and culture emerged, efficiency in acquisition of sustenance by working in groups Homo sapiens sapiens: (200,000 BC- Present) “wise wise humans” replaced Neanderthals, spread throughout the world Keys to Hominid Development 1. Bipedalism 2. Tool-making 3. Fire: more food, bigger people, increased exploration due to protection against predators and ability to adapt to environment with warmth 4. Social groups: bigger brains, longer parenting, safety in numbers 5. Physical/cognitive changes: larger brains, learning and information sharing Brain Size Timeline Australopithecines 500 cc Homo habilis 600-800 cc Homo erectus 800-1000 cc Homo sapiens 1200-1500 cc Homo sapiens sapiens 1500 cc Modern Humans 1180-1200 cc Homo sapiens replace Neanderthals Neanderthals Had big brains but cognitively more limited Used tools Buried dead Hunted Lived in caves Had short arms and legs with a bulky torso (strong) Why they died out? Cognitively more limited Awkward and clumsy Could not adapt as well when the environment began to change Hunter and Gatherers of the Old Stone Age 1. Paleolithic Age (2.5 million-10,000 years ago) “Old Stone Age” Hunting and gathering Nomadic bands (20-30 people): beginning of family groups Division of labor between men and women o Gender (at the time, known only as biological) arises: men hunt, women gather and take care of children o Division of labor creates efficiency, which allows leisure time Discovery of fire (500,000 BC): source of light, heat, and cooking for food Cultural activities due to increase in leisure time (cave paintings) 2. Neolithic Revolution (12,000-4000 BC) “New Stone Age” Agriculture revolution: began to see domestication of crops, taking generations of knowledge and perfecting farming Pottery appears Consequences: o Permanent settlements: humans start to invest time and resources in an area in order to preserve the community’s welfare o Trade: bargaining occurs, causes disputes, introduces the idea of currency o Specialized division of labor: allowing certain tasks to become mastered and learn new things with those skills, increasing knowledge o Improved tools (hoes, plows, shovels) o Domestication of animals: Dogs: were once wolves, had a symbiotic relationship. Taught humans hunting skills and group hunting. The benefit of having dogs caused both dogs’ and humans’ brains to lose CCs Sheep: provided lamb and wool Goats: provided milk Cattle: provided leather, meat, and milk Horse and ox: labor force (farming) o Development of writing: helped with trade (record keeping and division of labor) o Use of metals: improved efficiency of tools, weapons were made
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