General Terminology PSCI 3255
Popular in Political Race Ethnic Gender
Popular in Political Science
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Garrett on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 3255 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Brandy S. Faulkner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Political Race Ethnic Gender in Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Race and Ethnicity 8/26/2016 Race as a term o “A phenotypically and/or geographically distinctive subgroup composed of individuals inhabiting a defined geographical and/or ecological region, and possessing characteristics phenotype and gene frequencies that distinguish it from other groups” – Robert King and William Stansfield If we associate a skin tone with a race, it means it is exclusive to that racial group o If it does, then it doesn’t belong to a specific race o White skin tones show up in other races, and vice versa o Same applies to hair texture not exclusive to a race, not a racial characteristic o You cannot find a single phenotype that is exclusive to a race o Likewise with genotypes Not a genetic issue There is no such thing as biological or genetic races. Cultural groups, ethnicities, nationalities, but NOT races. Race is a genetic and biological falsehood. 94% of genetic variation within races o We see the highest levels of genetic variation within, not outside groups. o Two white people, for example, differ genetically more than a white and a black person. Origins of the concept of race 18 century to refer to the people brought to the American colonies. Social concept of race carries more weight Systems of power and privilege place us in a hierarchy with not biological or genetic basis “Race” is a social mechanism Blonde hair and blue eyes are indigenous to Africa Social construct of race o Social, political, economic consequences o Privilege and reward o Some groups will be classified as superior, others as inferior o White is not a race, but it is a social, economic, political reality, as is blackness, Asian, Hispanic. o Being labeled as one of those installs one into a hierarchy. Ethnicity as a term o The root of an ethnic group is its culture o Typically includes a common language, set of morals and values that are common to the group o Common spiritual approach o Philosophical tendencies Nationality as a term o A designation of one’s citizenship or geographic loyalty o Mexican, Canadian, American not linked to race or ethnic group All of these terms are intentionally misused Perpetuated through confusion There were initially only two “races” on the US census report o White and nonwhite o There are now 27 Racism as a term o Distribution of power and resources o Based on the hierarchy, the above will be distributed to populations o “Racism is the direct or indirect subjugation or oppression of a racialized group by the dominant racialized group for the purpose of maintaining the racial hierarchy and control of rewards and punishments.” o Without power, racism in ineffective. o Not to be confused with discrimination or prejudice Prejudice judging based on a certain characteristic o Everyone has prejudice o Belief or idea Discrimination o Occurs when we use our prejudicial judgements o Action based on the above belief or idea These constructs occur at the level or the individual Systemic supersedes individual decision making Discrimination can be good or bad o Allergic to certain food avoid it Just because you have not engaged in discrimination, does not mean you are not racist.
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