New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BSC 216 Lectures 1 and 2 on BLOOD

by: Vanessa Notetaker

BSC 216 Lectures 1 and 2 on BLOOD BSC 216

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 216 > BSC 216 Lectures 1 and 2 on BLOOD
Vanessa Notetaker
GPA 3.71
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Anatomy & Physiology II

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Anatomy & Physiology II notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes provide all the key terms and essential questions you will need to know on the chapter. Left column is the question card and right is the answer.
Anatomy & Physiology II
Austin Hicks
Class Notes
Anatomy & Physiology II, Blood




Popular in Anatomy & Physiology II

Popular in Biology

This 174 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Austin Hicks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


Reviews for BSC 216 Lectures 1 and 2 on BLOOD


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/26/16
What are the components of connective tissue? Ground substance, fibers and cells What makes blood a unique connective tissue? It lacks collagen and elastic fiber and it is liquid . Erythrocyte Oxygen transporting cell of blood Platelet Cell fragments that signal blood clotting Leukocytes White blood cells. Immune function and defense Granulocytes White blood cells that have granules that visibly stain Agranulocytes White blood cells that do not have granules that visibly stain What are all the granulocytes? Neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils What are all the agranulocytes? Monocytes and lymphocytes Hematocrit Percentage of blood volume that is RBCs (Usually 44%) Buffy coat White blood cells and platelets (1% of blood volume) Plasma Majority of blood volume (55%) What is in plasma? Complex mixture of water, proteins, nutrients, electrolytes, nitrogenous wastes, hormones and gases Three main functions of blood Transport, protection against blood loss and regulation of Ph, body temperature and fluivolume What is the chemical equation for Ph buffering in blood? - + H 2O 3HCO + H 3 Serum Plasma except for fibrinogen What are the three kinds of plasma proteins? Albumins, globulins and fibrogen and other clotting proteins Albumins Smallest and most abundant that contribute to viscosity and osmolarity Globulins Provide immune system functions and transport proteins Fibrinogen Precursor of fibrin threads that help form blood clots Key characteristics of erythrocytes Biconcave, no organelles, large surface area to volume ratio, anaerobic functioning Primary functions of erythrocytes Carry O t2 cell tissues and pick up CO to lungs 2 What makes up hemoglobin? 2 alpha globulins, 2 beta globulins, 4 heme groups and 4 iron atoms Hemopoiesis Production of blood especially its formed elements Hemopoietic tissues Tissues that produce blood What are the hemopoietic tissues prior to birth? Yolk sac, spleen, liver, thymus Lymphoid hemopoiesis Lymphocyte production that occurs in the lymph tissues and spleen Myeloid hemopoiesis Production of all 7 formed elements in the red bone marrow Hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) Stems cells from which all 7 formed elements are formed; not predestined Colony forming units (CFU) Predestined specialized stem cells that only produce one kind of formed element Commitment The feature of CFUs to ONLY form ONE kind of formed element Path HSC take to become erythrocytes HSCErythrocyte- CFUProerythroblastEarly erythroblastlate erythroblastreticulocyteRBCs Average lifespan of Red Blood Cell 120 days What is the first committed cell in erythrocyte production? Erythrocyte colony forming unit Negative feedback control Process by which erythrocyte numbers are regulated; drop in RBC-> rise in EPO What causes increases in hemopoiesis? Low oxygen levels, high altitude, increase in exercise, loss of lung tissue What is the usable form of iron in the body? (ferrous or ferric ion) 2+ Ferrous ion (Fe ) Gastroferrin Transports ferrous ions in the stomach to the small intestine for absorption Transferrin Transports ferrous ions in the blood stream to the liver and other organs Ferritin Storage form of iron in the liver Sinusoid Point of entrapment in the spleen for aged erythrocytes What happens after erythrocytes are phagocytized in the spleen? Iron ions and amino acids are recycled and the bilirubin is sent to liver Anemia Decrease in oxygen carrying ability of erythrocytes What are the different causes of anemia? Decreased hemoglobin, decreased hematocrit or abnormal hemoglobin What are some of the consequences of anemia? Tissue hypoxia, reduced blood osmolarity and reduced blood viscosity Inadequate erythropoiesis hemorrhagic anemia Blood loss (acute or chronic) Hemolytic anemia Erythrocytes rupture prematurely as a result of parasitic or bacterial infection Iron deficiency anemia Insufficient iron ingestion or absorption Pernicious anemia Problems with vitamin B12 absorption and hemoglobin synthesis What are some unique features of leukocytes? They do not stay in the blood stream long and move into the tissues Diapedesis Ability of leukocytes to move into the tissues through capillaries Amoeboid motion Triggered by chemical cues released by damaged cells Neutrophils 3-5 lobed nucleus with more neutral colors Function of neutrophil Phagocytize bacteria Basophil Blue tint with indistinguishable nucleus because of granules Function of basophil Secretes histamine and increases blood flow and aids in WBC recruitment Eosinophil Has a barbell shaped nucleus and granules that stain red Function of eosinophil Destroy pathogens that are too big to be phagocytized Monocytes Largest leukocyte that contains U- shaped nucleus Role of Monocyte Phagocytize debris and pathogens and differentiate into macrophages Lymphocyte About the same size as RBC with a nucleus almost the size of the cell Role of lymphocyte Immune function and memory Leukopoiesis Production of white blood cells What are the three kinds of CFU lines that rise from leukopoiesis? Myeloblasts, lymphoblasts and monoblasts Thrombopoietin Initiates megakaryote formation that leads to platelets formation Functions of platelets Secrete vasoconstrictors, stick together to form plugs, secrete procoagulants, intiate formation of clot dissolving enzyme, chemically attract neutrophils and monocytes Vascular spasm Vasoconstriction and increased tissue pressure to prevent blood loss Platelet Plug Formation Von Willebrand factor excreted to make platelets stick together and to injury Intrinsic Coagulation vs extrinsic coagulation Intrinsic is started by factors in blood stream and extrinsic is initiated by tissue factors on outside Coagulation Formation of fibrin web to catch red blood cells and glue platelets Clot retraction Seams of blood vessel close together and serum is squeezed out Thrombolysis Plasminogen used to destroy fibrin fibers What determines blood type? The antigens on the surface of erythrocytes Antigen Complex molecules on surface of cell membrane that are unique to the individual or organism Agglutinogen Antigen on surface of red blood cell Antibody Gamma globulins secreted by plasma cells that are part of immune response Agglutinin Antibodies in plasma that designed to attach to antigens Agglutination Antibody attachment to antigens to create RBC clumping A+ Antigen- Rh, A Antibody- Anti B A- Antigen- A Antibody- Anti-B, Anti-Rh B+ Antigen- B, Rh Antibody- Anti-A B- Antigen- B Antibody- Anti-A, Anti-Rh AB+ Antigen- A, B, Rh Antibody- None AB- Antigen- A, B Antibody- Anti-Rh O+ Antigen- Rh Antibody- Anti-A, Anti-B O- Antigen- None Antibody- Anti-A, Anti-B and Anti-Rh When does Rh become a problematic antigen? When a Rh negative woman has a second Rh positive child with a Rh positive man How can problems with Rh antigen be prevented at childbirth? Injection of RHOgam that inhibits Anti-Rh activity


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.