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PY 101

by: Ashley Bartolomeo
Ashley Bartolomeo
GPA 3.9

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Notes on brain structure
Intro to Psychology
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Bartolomeo on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by TBA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Brain Structure, Part 1 The Brain  Broca’s area­ first supporting evidence that the brain has different areas with different  functions The Brain Stem  If spinal cord is damaged, neurons can’t fire (paralysis)  Reticular formation: alertness, if damaged become tired  Brain stem: o Midbrain o Pons o Medulla Oblongata o All deal with survival instincts (breathing, heart beating) The Cerebral Cortex  The outer layer of brain tissue, forms the convoluted surface of the brain o Site of all thoughts, perceptions and complex behaviors o Each cerebral hemisphere has four lobes  Occipital: vision  Parietal: senses like touch  Temporal: hearing, memory  Frontal: thought, planning, movement  Corpus Callosum: a massive bridge of millions of axons, connects the hemispheres and  allows information to flow between them o This structure is cut in the split brain operation Neuron Structure  Gray Matter: dominated by neuron’s cell bodies  White Matter: consists mostly of axons and the fatty myelin sheaths that surround them Temporal Lobe  Regions of cerebral cortex, below parietal lobe and in front of occipital lobe o Hearing o Facial recognition o Object recognition o Learning o Understanding language  o Emotional reactions Parietal Lobe  Important for sense of touch and for attention to environment o Primary somatosensory cortex o Somatosensory homunculus Occipital Lobe  Regions of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain, which are important for vision o Primary visual cortex Frontal Lobe  Regions of the cerebral cortex, at the front of the brain, which are important for  movement and higher level psychological processes associated with the prefrontal cortex o Primary motor cortex o Attention o Thought o Voluntary movement o Decision making o Language o Broca’s area o Everything that separates humans from animals Brain Structure, Part 2 The Cerebellum  Most obvious role is in motor learning and motor memory o Operates independently and unconsciously Subcortical Structures  Subcortical structures are important for understanding psychological functions  Thalamus, Basal Ganglia, Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, Amygdala Thalamus  Gateway to brain  Receives most incoming sensory information before it reaches the cortex Basal Ganglia  Important for planning and production of movement o Connects motor areas to thalamus o Nucleus accumbens (reward and punishment) Hypothalamus  Involved in regulation of bodily functions o Body temperature o Body rhythms o Blood pressure o Blood glucose levels  Influences our basic motivated behaviors o The four F’s (food, fighting, fleeing and fucking) Hippocampus  Memory  HM: has epilepsy, parts of hippocampus were removed and when he woke up he lost 11  years of memories; he could pick up new motor skills but couldn’t create new memories  Clive Wearing: had no short term memory but was able to remember his wide Long Term Memory  Standard consolidation theory: memories are temporarily stored in hippocampus until  they are transferred  Multiple trace theory: memories are stored permanently in the hippocampus Amygdala  Emotional and social processing  Linked to both pleasure and fear responses  Processes and stores emotional events  Necessary to feel and perceive emotions o SM­ Women with no fear  Lesions in her amygdala  Behavior repeatedly demonstrated ab absence of fear


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