PY 101 PY 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Bartolomeo on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by TBA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Brain Structure, Part 1 The Brain Broca’s area first supporting evidence that the brain has different areas with different functions The Brain Stem If spinal cord is damaged, neurons can’t fire (paralysis) Reticular formation: alertness, if damaged become tired Brain stem: o Midbrain o Pons o Medulla Oblongata o All deal with survival instincts (breathing, heart beating) The Cerebral Cortex The outer layer of brain tissue, forms the convoluted surface of the brain o Site of all thoughts, perceptions and complex behaviors o Each cerebral hemisphere has four lobes Occipital: vision Parietal: senses like touch Temporal: hearing, memory Frontal: thought, planning, movement Corpus Callosum: a massive bridge of millions of axons, connects the hemispheres and allows information to flow between them o This structure is cut in the split brain operation Neuron Structure Gray Matter: dominated by neuron’s cell bodies White Matter: consists mostly of axons and the fatty myelin sheaths that surround them Temporal Lobe Regions of cerebral cortex, below parietal lobe and in front of occipital lobe o Hearing o Facial recognition o Object recognition o Learning o Understanding language o Emotional reactions Parietal Lobe Important for sense of touch and for attention to environment o Primary somatosensory cortex o Somatosensory homunculus Occipital Lobe Regions of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain, which are important for vision o Primary visual cortex Frontal Lobe Regions of the cerebral cortex, at the front of the brain, which are important for movement and higher level psychological processes associated with the prefrontal cortex o Primary motor cortex o Attention o Thought o Voluntary movement o Decision making o Language o Broca’s area o Everything that separates humans from animals Brain Structure, Part 2 The Cerebellum Most obvious role is in motor learning and motor memory o Operates independently and unconsciously Subcortical Structures Subcortical structures are important for understanding psychological functions Thalamus, Basal Ganglia, Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, Amygdala Thalamus Gateway to brain Receives most incoming sensory information before it reaches the cortex Basal Ganglia Important for planning and production of movement o Connects motor areas to thalamus o Nucleus accumbens (reward and punishment) Hypothalamus Involved in regulation of bodily functions o Body temperature o Body rhythms o Blood pressure o Blood glucose levels Influences our basic motivated behaviors o The four F’s (food, fighting, fleeing and fucking) Hippocampus Memory HM: has epilepsy, parts of hippocampus were removed and when he woke up he lost 11 years of memories; he could pick up new motor skills but couldn’t create new memories Clive Wearing: had no short term memory but was able to remember his wide Long Term Memory Standard consolidation theory: memories are temporarily stored in hippocampus until they are transferred Multiple trace theory: memories are stored permanently in the hippocampus Amygdala Emotional and social processing Linked to both pleasure and fear responses Processes and stores emotional events Necessary to feel and perceive emotions o SM Women with no fear Lesions in her amygdala Behavior repeatedly demonstrated ab absence of fear
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