ANSC 1000 Lecture 1 Week 1
ANSC 1000 Lecture 1 Week 1 ANSC 1000
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Notetaker on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 1000 at Auburn University taught by Alese Grey Parks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
ANSC 1000Lecture 8-19-16 Highlighted: Definitions TheLivestock Industry: An Overview What do animals contributeto society? 1. Theyprovideusas humanswitha plentifulfoodsource: Meat Milk Eggs Cheese,butter,etc. 2. Theyalsohaveprovidedshelterinthe pastwith the useof their hides. 3. Animalshavebeenused as powersources such as packing, transport,anddraft. 4. Theymake a bigimpacton our clothingindustriesbyproviding wools,hair, pelts,etc. 5. We use the fats collectedfrom animalsinorderto produce grease andtallow,a substanceusedto make soapsandcandles. 6. Animalsmakevery goodcompanionsforhumansas well. What types of nutritionalvalues can wereceive from animal products? Aminoacidscan be more easilyobtainedfromanimalsthan from plants.Theaminoacidsthatare derivedfrom theanimal resemblemore closelyto theneeds ofthehumanbodythan thoseofplants.Aminoacidsare necessaryfor thehumandiet becausetheymake up theproteinsourbodiesneed. VitaminB12 isa vitaminthatisrequiredinthe bodyto help regulatethe functionsofthe brain,nervoussystem, and formationofred bloodcells.However, the humanbodydoesnot naturallyproducethisvitamin.Animalproductshaveadecent amountofVitaminB12,whereas plantscannotprovidean adequateamountnecessaryforconsumption. Animalproductsarealsovery palatable,meaningthatthey generallysatisfydifferentwater, energy, andnutritional requirementsinourbodies. Why do weproducelivestock? Livestockhas a highprofitmargin as well as a large demandin the U.S. o Foodis one ofthe largestproductsthatcomes from animals.Everyonehasto eat sothis is a veryhighly profitableaspectoflivestockproduction. o Theyprovideuswith differentfiberssuch as wool and mohairwhich are usedbymanydifferentclothingand fabricmanufacturers. o Animalsarealsovery usefulfor differentby-productssuch as leather,animalfoods,pharmaceuticals,hormones,etc. Animals Provides Market for Grain Farmers tendto producelarge amountsofgrain.But as humans, we simplycannotuse themajorityofthatfor our foodsource. Thisprovidesthefarmers with an easilyobtainablefoodsource for theirlivestock which can come from the lower qualitygrains, mixedgrains,andbrewers by-products. Land Can Be Used that is Unsuitablefor Cultivation Manydifferentaspectscan affect thequalityofland. Topographyisbestknown as howthelandis laidout.If a piece oflandcontainslargelyunevenground,rollinghills,ornumerous trees,thisis badfor possiblecropyields.The soildepthcan also be a factor for cultivation.Soildepthisbasicallyhowmuch or howlittleofthenecessarynutrientsrequiredforgrowth is inthe 2 soilandwhere theyare locatedin thedifferentgroundlayers. The land’sfertility,orabilitytomaintainthegrowthof plants, alsoplaysa bigrole in thelandquality.Anotherlimitingfactoris howmuch or howlittlerainfallthelandreceives. Livestockare ableto be placedon thesedifferenttypes ofland in orderto providea usefor it. Theyare able touse these places for foodsources andconvert them intosatisfactoryfoodsources for the U.S. Food Sources and Economics Most ofthe humanpopulationaroundtheworldtendto eat bothplantandanimalproducts.Dairyandmeatproductsare usuallypreferredifavailable. Manypeoplearoundtheworldsuffer from differenttypesof hunger-relatedissues.Oneofthoseproblemsis calledChronic persistenthunger(CPH). Thisis a long-termhunger issuethatis oftenrelatedto lackofmoney,changes inclimate, water shortage,politicalinstability,problemswithsoilfertility,lackof organization,andevenilliteracy.Anotherhungerrelatedissue manypeopleface is calledfamine.Famine can be definedasa hungerthatis created due toa naturaldisaster,war,drought,or othersevere instancesthatcauses productionbreakdownandis more ofa limitedtimeissue. In the U.S.alone,15% offamily householdsarefoodinsecure.Thismeanstheyare not necessarilyfinanciallystableenoughtoprovideasubstantial amountoffood.6% ofthat15% havehunger. *Worldwide Food Consumption Chart, pg.10 in Scientific Farm Animal Production: An Introduction to Animal Science textbook. Changes in U.S. Agriculture Industries ThroughouttheU.S.,12% ofthe populationisinvolvedin agricultureinone wayor another. *Chart on pg.5 in textbook 3 Over theyears,the numberoffarms across the countryhave decreased.This isdue to theincrease insize ofthe farms. Farmers are ableto farm more landwith allofthe different equipmentavailabletoday.Technologyhasplayedamajor role in thefood productionprocess. There are fewer farmersin the U.S.todayalsobecause thefood industriesrelyona select few individualstoprovidethe necessaryproducts.Thisrouteallowstheprices for different goodsand productstoremainat a fixedrate andalsolessens the aspectofcompetitivepricing. Thefactor ofonlyhavinga few supplierstorelyoncan alsopose anissue.Theycouldhave reallyhigh,goodqualityproductswhichwouldbe beneficial. However, theycouldhavea bad year andturnoutpoorquality productsas well.It is importantthat theyonlyoffer products thatare profitable. Changes in U.S. Meat Consumption We as consumershavereallyhelpedto shapethefoodindustry. We are largelyresponsibleforwhatis beingproducedandsold. Over theyears,we havedevelopedmoreefficientways to producethesedifferentmeat productsthathavea cheapercost ofproduction.Thisallowstheproducertosell theirgoodsat a lower price thanwhatit used tocost. As consumers,we knowwhatwe like andhowwe like it.The qualityandflavorof ourmeat is a very importantfactorasto whetheror not we willpurchaseit. There are manypeopleoutthere who havechanged what they eat for differentreasons.For instance,red meatis consideredto be high infat andsodiumcontent.Bothofthosetwo substances havebeenknown tocause variousissueswith theheart, thereforepeopleare choosingto eatmore meats such as chicken or fish. Modern Food Industry 4 The modernfoodindustryismade upofseveral different categories thattheywant the consumerto perceiveas “healthier.”Yet,allofthese are justmarketingschemes in order to be ableto markupthe price just a littlebit. Organicfoodsare supposedtobe foodsthatare antibioticfree. But whatthe common consumerfailsto understandisthatthe producercannotplacea foodproductonthe market ifit containsanytraces ofantibiotics. GeneticallyModifiedOrganismorGMO productshavebeena huge controversyfor a while.A GMOis an organismthathas beenchanged geneticallyusinggenetic engineeringtechniques. Thisis usedto make foodslast longer,taste better,anddevelop faster.However,there is a bigdebateoverwhetheror notthe productsthatare geneticallymodifiedaresafe to consume. Local foodmarkets,such as farmer’s markets,“Farm to table,” andcommunity-sponsoredagricultureareallverypopularinthe foodindustryrightnowas well.Most consumersthinkthat buyingfoodsandproductsthatare “locallygrown” is more beneficialandhealthierbecausetheyare nottreatedwithall theseharshchemicals andwhatnot.However,the USDA does notconsiderlocal thesame way we do.To them,local can be anythingwithina400-mile radius. In the consumer’smind,free-range andgrass-fed are alsotwo thingsthatare good tolookoutfor.Free-range is definedas an animalthatisallowedto roamfree or notkept locked upin any sort ofcontainment.Buttothe USDA,thissimplymeans thatthe animalmightbe in a pinor cage where there haveenoughroom to turnaroundandthat’sit.Grass-fedis a term thatpeoplelike to hearbecause theythinkthatthe cow or whatever theyare purchasingwas fed solelyongrass throughoutitslifetime. Therefore,the possibilityofthe cow beinggiven antibioticsor hormonestomake it grow andfattenup fasteris not there.Yet again,the USDA doesn’twant theconsumer toknowthatthis 5 doesnot alwaysmean thecow never received anykindof antibioticsoranything. Today’sfoodindustryhasa prettyhigh sustainability rate. Sustainabilityistheabilitytomaintainproduction. TheLand-Grant System In 1862, AbrahamLincolnestablishedtheU.S.Departmentof Agriculture.At thistime, theMorrillLand-GrantCollegeAct was alsoestablished.Thisactputin placethe constructionof68 colleges,at leastonein each state.The purposewas to teach agriculturewithoutexcludingotherstudyareassuch as science andmilitarytactics topromoteeducationofthe industrial classes. In 1887, the Hatch ExperimentStationActgavestates federal landgrantsto developexperimentstationsforresearch in agriculture. In 1914, the Smith-Lever Act establishedtheextensionservices system to helpbetterinformthe ruralcitizensaboutagricultural developments. The purposeofthe modernland-grantareto furthereducate peopleaboutthepurposeandbenefitsofagriculture, to be able to continueresearchstudies,andtoupdatethepublicaboutthe differentdevelopmentsinagricultureaswell as publicpolicy. 6