Biology 1113 Week 1 Notes
Biology 1113 Week 1 Notes Biology 1113
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1113 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Ball and Dr. Weinstein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
The Nature of Science Tuesday, August 23, 2016 10:46 PM (no previous reading) What is Science? - Science cannot solve any problem or question. - Science is not absolute or permanent. - Scientists often try to disprove or test possible explanations. - "systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation" Commonlymisused terms: Hypothesis ○ Tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation ○ It is not a question ○ More of an educated guess ○ Must be testable and falsifiable Theory ○ A well - substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experimentation ○ Broad in scope Hypotheses vs. Theory ○ Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power. **NOTHING CAN BE PROVEN IN SCIENCE (never pick an answer with "prove" in it)** Nature of Science Science has limits ○ Can only address natural phenomena …. Not supernatural. It has to be testable. Science is based on observations ○ Jane Gooddall with chimpanzees ○ Dinosaurs from fossils Science is inherently uncertain ○ Science doesn't prove things Scientists are always trying to disprove their theories "The data strongly suggests" Science can be done poorly (in a non-scientific way) or be misused ○ Nazi human experiments during World War II ○ Stanford prison experiment ○ Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment Science is a social process ○ Help is always needed by other people ○ Peer review journals Misleading Science Poorly (unscientifically) conducted Data fudged, exaggerated or negative results ignored, "picked" out certain results and ignored others Conclusions not supported by data Just because you see two things happen together, that doesn't mean that they cause one another ○ Correlation does not equal causation Bias involved Lying Bad Science examples Cell phones cause brain cancer Vaccines cause autism ○ Original article published in 1998 … retracted in 2010 ○ Caused many parents to not vaccinate their children Any of the "miracle" cures and weight loss drugs
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