Biology week 1 8/22-8/26 notes
Biology week 1 8/22-8/26 notes bio 1305
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabby Scheck on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bio 1305 at Baylor University taught by Walter Holmes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see mod concepts of bioscience in Biology at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
8/22-8/26 Bio 1305 notes Prof. Holmes 10:10am MWF Ch. 1 textbook notes Evolution- the process of change that has transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today. Properties of life Regulation Response to environment Reproduction Energy processing Evolutionary adaption Growth and development Order 1.1 5 themes: organization, information, energy and matter, interactions, evolution theme 1: new properties emerge at each new level of biological hierarchy levels of biological organization Biosphere- all life on earth Ecosystem- all living things in a particular area Communities- array of organisms living in an ecosystem Population- all of the individuals of a specific species living in a defined area Organisms- Organ and organ systems Tissues- a group of cells that work together to perform a specific task Cell- life’s fundamental unit of structure and function Organelles- various functional components of cells Molecules Emergent properties- the properties that emerge at each level of life that are absent in preceding levels due to arrangement and increasing interaction of parts as complexity increases the cell- basic unit of structure, smallest unit that can perform all activities required for life prokaryotic- lacks nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles, smaller bacteria archaea Eukaryotic- contains nucleus and membrane bound organelles, larger Theme 2: life’s processes involve expression and transmission of genetic information DNA- chromosomes that contain genetic material, made of 4 nucleotides, double helix formation Genes- unit of inheritance, encode information necessary to build all molecules synthisized in a cell. (many genes provide blueprints for making proteins Proteins- major player in building and maintaining the cell and its activities Genes control protein synthesis indirectly using RNA A sequence of nucleotides in a gene are transcribed using RNA RNA is then translated into amino acids (protein building blocks) Resulting in specific protein with a unique shape and function Gene expression- process through which information in a gene directs the manufacture of cellular products Genome- the entire “library” of genetic instruction that an organism inherits Genomics- studding the t=whole set of genes in one or more organisms Proteomics- studying sets of proteins and properties 3 things make these studies possible: “high throughput” technology- rapid analyzation bioinformatics- storage of large amounts of information and data interdisiplinary research teams (scientists, mathematicians) Theme 3: life requires the transfer and transformation of energy Producers- photosynthesis to produce their own food Consumers- organisms that feed on producers or other consumers Energy is often lost as heat Energy flow 1 way through a system Theme 4: from ecosystems to molecules interaction are important in biological systems Organisms interact with other organisms and the environment Enzymes- catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions Feedback regulation- the output, or product of a process regulates that process Negative feedback loop- most common, reduces initial stimulus (body temperature) Positive feedback loop- less common, the end product of a process speed/ intensifies the process (childbirth) 1.2 The core theme: EVOLUTION accounts unity and diversity of life taxonomy- branch of biology that names and classifies species 3 domains: Bacteria- prokaryote Archaea- prokaryote Eukarya- eukaryote, 3 kingdoms Plantae-produce their own food Fungi- absorb food Animalia- eat others Origins of species- Charles Darwin, 1859 Contemporary species arose from ancestors that were different, “decent with modifications” Natural Selection Individuals in a population differ in traits that are inheritable A population can produce more offspring than can survive to produce offspring Species generally suit their environment (adaption) Unequal reproductive success leads to the adaption of the environment 1.3 In studying nature, scientists make observations and form and test hypothesis Inquiry- search for information and explanation Scientist process of inquiry Observations Forming logical and testable explanations Experimentation Observation- gathering of information, either through direct use of senses of with the use of tools Data- recorded observations Quantitative- numbers, tables and graphs Qualitative- descriptions Inductive reasoning- using data and observations to come to conclusions Hypothesis- a tentative answer to a well framed question, based on data, testable Experiment- scientific test carried out under controlled conditions We can NEVER prove that a hypothesis is true We can only test natural phenomena Science is very unpredictable so it is often hard to stick to a 5 step textbook scientific approach Experiment- manipulating one factor in a system in order to seen the effect of changing it Controlled experiment- one that is designed to compare to an experimental group Independent variable- factor manipulated by researchers Dependent variable- factor measured in the experiment Researchers usually “control” unwanted variables in an experiment not by eliminating them but by canceling out their effects by using control groups 1.4 Science benefits from a cooperative approach and diverse view points Scientific results are continually vetted through repetition of observations and experiments Model organism- a species that is easy to grow in a lab and lends itself well to being investigated (fruit fly, rat) Lecture Notes Theory- the scientific body of principals that explain a phenomenon Thesis- a tentative explanation Scientific method- principals and procedures for doing science
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