Micro: Chapter 1 - Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks
Micro: Chapter 1 - Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks Bio 221
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Carter on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 221 at College of Western Idaho taught by Teresa Rich in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at College of Western Idaho.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Microbiology: Chapter 1 – Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks Types of Microorganisms o Bacteria o Archaea o Protozoa o Fungi o Helminths o Viruses Microbes and the Planet o Prokaryote: cell without a nucleus Stromatolite fossils found The first to photosynthesize Still do most of the photosynthesis on the planet Ubiquitous: Found in every environment (earth’s crust, oceans, ice caps, intestines) o Evolution The adaptation of living organisms Every species shows some variation The better adapted animals survive Favorable genetic differences are passed on to the offspring o Theory An idea that has a lot of data to support it, a predictive value, but hasn’t been completely proven Microbes and Humans o Humans Using Microbes Domestication Microbes make cheese, yogurt, bread, alcohol, acetone Biotechnology: humans manipulating microbes to make products industrially Microbes make rubbing alcohol, human insulin, and antibiotics Genetic Engineering Manipulates the genetics of microbes to make things like insulin o Recombinant DNA technology: transferring genetic material from one organism to another Insert the gene for human insulin into a microbe and use the microbe as a host to produce more insulin Bioremediation: the ability of microbes to clean up toxic pollutants Certain forms of bacteria and yeast eat petroleum o Used to clean up oil spills o Microbes Using Humans Emerging Diseases New Diseases Noninfectious Infectious Cancer – linked to viruses What Are They? o Cellular Organization Eukaryotes Have a nucleus Enclosed in a membrane Have mitochondria Sometimes have chloroplasts Can be multicellular or unicellular Prokaryotes Do not have a nucleus or organelles 10x smaller Always unicellular o Types of Microorganisms Helminths Biggest Eukaryotic Multicellular Microscopic eggs and larva Transmitted the same as other infectious agents Immune system responds to them the same as other infectious agents Fungi Eukaryotic Yeasts, molds, mushrooms Recycle cellulose Algae Eukaryotic Use photosynthesis (using light to convert CO2 to organic material and oxygen) Protozoa Eukaryotic Unicellular Some are pathogenic Anything that is eukaryotic, but not a helminth, fungus, or algae Bacteria Prokaryotic Unicellular Peptidoglycan in cell walls Some are pathogenic Produce most of the oxygen in the atmosphere Some use photosynthesis Viruses Acellular Have genetic material wrapped in a capsid Some are pathogenic Macromolecules o Carbohydrates Monomer: monosaccharide Polymer: polysaccharide Provide cellular fuel Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio Made of sugars Monosaccharides (one chain) o Used for quick energy o Glucose o Fructose o Galactose Disaccharides (two chains) o Sucrose o Maltose o Lactose Polysaccharides (many chains) o Cellulose (fiber - we cannot digest) o Glycogen o Lipids Not made of monomers and polymers Can’t dissolve in water Supply and store energy Made of glycerol and fatty acids Triglyceride: 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids Phospholipid: 1 glycerol + 2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate group o Make phospholipid bilayers of cell membranes o Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail Always align themselves in water with the heads on the outside (in contact with the water), and the tails protected on the inside Wax: fatty acids and alcohol Steroids: ringed structure o Cholesterol Saturated Saturated with hydrogen No double bonds Solid at room temperature Unsaturated Not saturated with hydrogen More than 1 double bond (kinks in the chain) Liquid at room temperature o Proteins Monomer: Amino Acids Polymer: Polypeptide Made of a combo of 20 different amino acids Carboxyl group + amino group + side chain Each amino acid differs in its R group Structures Primary order of amino acids, linear Secondary alpha helix, beta sheets Tertiary Quaternary Functions Cell surface receptors Enzymes Transport molecules Antibodies o Nucleic Acids Made of nucleotides 5 carbon sugar (ribose) Phosphate group Nitrogenous base o Adenine o Guanine o Cytosine o Thymine o Uracil Functions Energy Transfer o Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Has 3 phosphate groups o Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Has given up one phosphate group to release energy Now has 2 phosphate groups Can be converted back to ATP + o NAD NADH A hydrogen is added and energy is released o FAD FADH 2 Two hydrogens are added and energy is released Information Transfer o DNA Double Helix shape Pairing Adenine + Thymine Cytosine + Guanine Found in chromosomes o RNA One strand Pairing Adenine + Uracil Cytosine + Guanine Found in ribosomes Messenger RNA (mRNA) A copy of a gene that provides the order and types of amino acids in a protein Transfer RNA (tRNA) A carrier tht delivers the correc amino acids for protein assembly Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) A major component of ribosomes
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