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Micro: Chapter 1 - Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks

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by: Savannah Carter

Micro: Chapter 1 - Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks Bio 221

Marketplace > College of Western Idaho > Biology > Bio 221 > Micro Chapter 1 Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks
Savannah Carter
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About this Document

These are notes on Chapter 1 done in the first two weeks of the semester. Topics include types of microorganisms and macromolecules
Teresa Rich
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Carter on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 221 at College of Western Idaho taught by Teresa Rich in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at College of Western Idaho.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Microbiology: Chapter 1 – Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks  Types of Microorganisms o Bacteria o Archaea o Protozoa o Fungi o Helminths o Viruses  Microbes and the Planet o Prokaryote: cell without a nucleus  Stromatolite fossils found  The first to photosynthesize  Still do most of the photosynthesis on the planet  Ubiquitous: Found in every environment (earth’s crust, oceans, ice caps, intestines) o Evolution  The adaptation of living organisms  Every species shows some variation  The better adapted animals survive  Favorable genetic differences are passed on to the offspring o Theory  An idea that has a lot of data to support it, a predictive value, but hasn’t been completely proven  Microbes and Humans o Humans Using Microbes  Domestication  Microbes make cheese, yogurt, bread, alcohol, acetone  Biotechnology: humans manipulating microbes to make products industrially  Microbes make rubbing alcohol, human insulin, and antibiotics  Genetic Engineering  Manipulates the genetics of microbes to make things like insulin o Recombinant DNA technology: transferring genetic material from one organism to another  Insert the gene for human insulin into a microbe and use the microbe as a host to produce more insulin  Bioremediation: the ability of microbes to clean up toxic pollutants  Certain forms of bacteria and yeast eat petroleum o Used to clean up oil spills o Microbes Using Humans  Emerging Diseases  New Diseases  Noninfectious  Infectious  Cancer – linked to viruses  What Are They? o Cellular Organization  Eukaryotes  Have a nucleus  Enclosed in a membrane  Have mitochondria  Sometimes have chloroplasts  Can be multicellular or unicellular  Prokaryotes  Do not have a nucleus or organelles  10x smaller  Always unicellular o Types of Microorganisms  Helminths  Biggest  Eukaryotic  Multicellular  Microscopic eggs and larva  Transmitted the same as other infectious agents  Immune system responds to them the same as other infectious agents  Fungi  Eukaryotic  Yeasts, molds, mushrooms  Recycle cellulose  Algae  Eukaryotic  Use photosynthesis (using light to convert CO2 to organic material and oxygen)  Protozoa  Eukaryotic  Unicellular  Some are pathogenic  Anything that is eukaryotic, but not a helminth, fungus, or algae  Bacteria  Prokaryotic  Unicellular  Peptidoglycan in cell walls  Some are pathogenic  Produce most of the oxygen in the atmosphere  Some use photosynthesis  Viruses  Acellular  Have genetic material wrapped in a capsid  Some are pathogenic  Macromolecules o Carbohydrates  Monomer: monosaccharide  Polymer: polysaccharide  Provide cellular fuel  Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio  Made of sugars  Monosaccharides (one chain) o Used for quick energy o Glucose o Fructose o Galactose  Disaccharides (two chains) o Sucrose o Maltose o Lactose  Polysaccharides (many chains) o Cellulose (fiber - we cannot digest) o Glycogen o Lipids  Not made of monomers and polymers  Can’t dissolve in water  Supply and store energy  Made of glycerol and fatty acids  Triglyceride: 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids  Phospholipid: 1 glycerol + 2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate group o Make phospholipid bilayers of cell membranes o Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail  Always align themselves in water with the heads on the outside (in contact with the water), and the tails protected on the inside  Wax: fatty acids and alcohol  Steroids: ringed structure o Cholesterol  Saturated  Saturated with hydrogen  No double bonds  Solid at room temperature  Unsaturated  Not saturated with hydrogen  More than 1 double bond (kinks in the chain)  Liquid at room temperature o Proteins  Monomer: Amino Acids  Polymer: Polypeptide  Made of a combo of 20 different amino acids  Carboxyl group + amino group + side chain  Each amino acid differs in its R group  Structures  Primary  order of amino acids, linear  Secondary  alpha helix, beta sheets  Tertiary  Quaternary  Functions  Cell surface receptors  Enzymes  Transport molecules  Antibodies o Nucleic Acids  Made of nucleotides  5 carbon sugar (ribose)  Phosphate group  Nitrogenous base o Adenine o Guanine o Cytosine o Thymine o Uracil  Functions  Energy Transfer o Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)  Has 3 phosphate groups o Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)  Has given up one phosphate group to release energy  Now has 2 phosphate groups  Can be converted back to ATP + o NAD  NADH  A hydrogen is added and energy is released o FAD  FADH 2  Two hydrogens are added and energy is released  Information Transfer o DNA  Double Helix shape  Pairing  Adenine + Thymine  Cytosine + Guanine  Found in chromosomes o RNA  One strand  Pairing  Adenine + Uracil  Cytosine + Guanine  Found in ribosomes  Messenger RNA (mRNA)  A copy of a gene that provides the order and types of amino acids in a protein  Transfer RNA (tRNA)  A carrier tht delivers the correc amino acids for protein assembly  Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)  A major component of ribosomes


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