Experimental Psychology PSYC 266 - 04
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Schnarr on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 266 - 04 at Truman State University taught by Ashley Ramsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in Psychology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Week 1: 8/228/28 Experimental Psych Scientific Method and Research Ethics The Scientific Method Purpose → Research → Hypothesis → Experiment → Analysis → Conclusion ● Law consists of statements generally expressed as equations with overwhelming empirical support ● Theory set of related statements used to explain and predict phenomena ● Principle of parsimony we prefer the simplest useful explanation Four Main Objectives of Science 1. Description systematic and unbiased of observed characteristics of behaviors 2. Prediction capability of knowing in advance when certain events should occur 3. Explanation knowledge of the conditions that reliably produce a behavior 4. Control use of scientific knowledge to influence behavior Tools of Psychological Science ● Observation systematic noting and recording of observable events (Must be objective) ● Measurement assigns numbers to objects, events, or their characteristics ● Experimentation investigate testable predictions (hypotheses) and establish causeandeffect relationships Research 1. Applied addresses realworld problems 2. Basic tests theories and explains psychological phenomena Pseudoscience Any field of study that gives the appearance of being scientific, but has no true scientific basis and hasn’t been confirmed using the scientific method Psychology Pseudopsychology Uses scientific method Tries to pass off as scientific Week 1: 8/228/28 Uses empirical evidence Uses fake/flawed, unsupported data Results are peerreviewed, repeatable, Results aren’t scrutinized or publishable and publishable Ex: Social Psych, Developmental Psych, Ex: Astrology, Palm reading, Tarot cards Cognitive Psych ● Research Ethics framework of values that help identify good/bad and help us to make responsible decisions in situations ● Institutional Review Boards makes sure research follows ethical standards ● Informed Consentagreeing to participate after relevant details have been explained; people have a right to refuse or discontinue the participation APA Ethical Guidelines ● Deception may be used when it’s the best way to obtain information ● Can’t be used to minimize participants’ perception of risk or exaggerate benefits ● Debriefing (full disclosure) explaining the true nature and purpose of a study to the subject(s) at the end of their participation Confederates ● A confederate is an experimenter's accomplice ● Also is an example of deception because participants in a study are led to believe that this person is another subject, experimenter, or bystander, but not part of the experimental manipulation Anonymity vs. Confidentiality ● Anonymity subjects aren’t identified by name ● Confidentiality data from experiment is securely stored and used only for the purpose explained to the subject Week 1: 8/228/28 Welfare of Animal Subjects ● Animal rights position that sentient species (those that can feel pain and suffer) have equal value and rights to humans ● Animal welfare humane care and treatment of animals ● Institutions that conduct animal research must establish an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) to evaluate animal research before it’s conducted Scientific Fraud and Plagiarism ● Involves falsifying or fabricating data ● Replication and peer review process help fight against fraud ● Plagiarismmisrepresenting someone’s ideas/works/words as your own (a form of fraud) Week 1: 8/228/28 Experimental Psychology Experimental vs. NonExperimental Research NonExperimental Research ● NonExperimental approaches don’t create levels of an independent variable nor randomly assign subjects to these levels Dependent Variable (D.V)→ 1+ Independent Variable (I.V)→ 1+ representing 2+ levels ● Used where experiments aren’t ethical/possible or testing a hypothesis in realistic conditions (Ex: Correlation) Internal Validity ● Degree to which a researcher can establish a causal relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable ● Allows us to draw causeandeffect conclusions ● Confounding Variables affect the I.V and D.V ● Experiment with C.V(s) have low internal validity ● Controlled experiments typically have high internal validity
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