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Experimental Psychology

by: Elizabeth Schnarr

Experimental Psychology PSYC 266 - 04

Elizabeth Schnarr
Truman State
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About this Document

This is the first week of notes in Experimental Psychology. In this lecture there were two power points in class. The first one included topics such as the scientific method, research, pseudoscienc...
Experimental Psychology
Ashley Ramsey
Class Notes
experimental, Psychology, psych, scientific, method




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Schnarr on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 266 - 04 at Truman State University taught by Ashley Ramsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in Psychology at Truman State University.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Week 1: 8/22­8/28  Experimental Psych  Scientific Method and Research Ethics      The Scientific Method­   Purpose → Research → Hypothesis → Experiment → Analysis → Conclusion    ● Law­ consists of statements generally expressed as equations with  overwhelming empirical support  ● Theory­ set of related statements used to explain and predict phenomena  ● Principle of parsimony­ we prefer the simplest useful explanation     Four Main Objectives of Science­  1. Description­ systematic and unbiased of observed characteristics of behaviors  2. Prediction­ capability of knowing in advance when certain events should occur  3. Explanation­ knowledge of the conditions that reliably produce a behavior  4. Control­ use of scientific knowledge to influence behavior    Tools of Psychological Science­  ● Observation­ systematic noting and recording of observable events (Must be  objective)  ● Measurement­ assigns numbers to objects, events, or their characteristics  ● Experimentation­ investigate testable predictions (hypotheses) and establish  cause­and­effect relationships  R​esearch  1. Applied­ addresses real­world problems   2. Basic­ tests theories and explains psychological phenomena    Pseudoscience­   Any field of study that gives the appearance of being scientific, but has no true  scientific basis and hasn’t been confirmed using the scientific method      Psychology  Pseudopsychology  Uses scientific method  Tries to pass off as scientific  Week 1: 8/22­8/28  Uses empirical evidence  Uses fake/flawed, unsupported data  Results are peer­reviewed, repeatable,  Results aren’t scrutinized or publishable  and publishable  Ex: Social Psych, Developmental Psych,  Ex: Astrology, Palm reading, Tarot cards  Cognitive Psych    ● Research Ethics​­ framework of values that help identify good/bad and  help us to make responsible decisions in situations  ● Institutional Review Boards­ makes sure research follows ethical  standards  ● Informed Consent​­agreeing to participate after relevant details have  been explained; people have a right to refuse or discontinue the  participation     APA Ethical Guidelines     ● Deception may be used when it’s the best way to obtain information  ● Can’t be used to minimize participants’ perception of risk or exaggerate benefits  ● Debriefing (full disclosure)­ explaining the true nature and purpose of a study to  the subject(s) at the end of their participation    Confederates    ● A confederate is an experimenter's accomplice  ● Also is an example of deception because participants in a study are led to  believe that this person is another subject, experimenter, or bystander, but not  part of the experimental manipulation    Anonymity vs. Confidentiality     ● Anonymity­ subjects aren’t identified by name  ● Confidentiality­ data from experiment is securely stored and used only for the  purpose explained to the subject      Week 1: 8/22­8/28  Welfare of Animal Subjects    ● Animal rights­ position that sentient species (those that can feel pain and suffer)  have equal value and rights to humans  ● Animal welfare­ humane care and treatment of animals  ● Institutions that conduct animal research must establish an Institutional Animal  Care and Use Committee (IACUC) to evaluate animal research before it’s  conducted    Scientific Fraud and Plagiarism    ● Involves falsifying or fabricating data  ● Replication and peer review process help fight against fraud  ● Plagiarism­misrepresenting someone’s ideas/works/words as your own (a form of  fraud)                                                Week 1: 8/22­8/28  Experimental Psychology  Experimental vs. Non­Experimental Research    Non­Experimental Research    ● Non­Experimental approaches don’t create levels of an independent variable nor  randomly assign subjects to these levels    Dependent Variable (D.V)→ 1+      Independent Variable (I.V)→ 1+ representing 2+  levels    ● Used where experiments aren’t ethical/possible or testing a hypothesis in realistic  conditions (Ex: Correlation)    Internal Validity    ● Degree to which a researcher can establish a causal relationship between the  independent variable and the dependent variable  ● Allows us to draw cause­and­effect conclusions  ● Confounding Variables­ affect the I.V and D.V  ● Experiment with C.V(s) have low internal validity  ● Controlled experiments typically have high internal validity               


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