Week 1 (August 21-26) Race and Racism
Week 1 (August 21-26) Race and Racism ANT3451
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3451 at University of Florida taught by Mary Elizabeth Ibarrola in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Race and Racism in Cultural Anthropology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Wednesday, August 24, 2016 Slavery, Capitalism, and the Origins of Race: Part 1 The Irish Which Came First? Application of Racial Paradigm in the Americas Extension of the Racial Paradigm Today Who Invented Race? Short answer: The English Long answer: Europeans o Indigenous Americans and Africans were subject to the system, but did not contribute to its invention Racial Paradigm Human groups: exclusive entities Inegalitarian ethos, ranking of groups Link between physical and cultural characteristics o How people acted and how they looked Belief that physical characteristics are inherited Division of groups ordained by GodFinal Etymology of “Race” Population of differing origins Emerges in 1600s o Different meanings in English and Spanish o Likely spread from Spanish to English Significance of link to animal breeding o Line/stock as breeding group o Belief that behavior can be bred In animals it is possible, yet in humans it doesn’t exist o Use of breeding to improve stock European Origins of Race Previous interactions Religious beliefs National ethnocentrism Hierarchical view of natural & social world English Nationalism Protestantism TH o Henry the 8 , creating Protestantism separated the English from the rest of Europe Exceptionalism o Us against the world o English Identity Lack of interaction o Spanish interacted with the Middle East and Africa, the British didn’t Possessive individualism Economic and social change in 15 & 16 centuries o Before feudalism Basic right of man to ow property in his own person, body, labor, etc. Justified appropriation of land The Irish Long standing conflict Differences in: o Religion o Settlement patterns o Mode of subsistence o Language Which came first? Racism first Slavery first Racial Ideology in American Exclusivity Ranking according to English cultural standard Behavior and rank linked to physical difference ______________________________________________________________________________ Friday, August 26, 2016 Slavery, Capitalism, and the Origins of Race: Part 2 Attitudes Towards Native Americans 2 Approaches o Benign/positive They are my kids o Fearsome/brutish They are cannibals I’ll be the white-skinned pure-souled Pilgrim and you be the blood thirsty Indian savage Difference between trading relationship and settlement o Trade focuspositive o Settlement focuscrafty out to kill people Religious justification o Settlement focusyou need to be strong or you’ll be attacked Puritanism Product of Protestant Reformation Self-righteous No commitment to humanistic values o No grey area, only good or bad Colonization o Stopped the spread of Catholicism o Relieved poverty at home o Gave job, and saved the souls of the poor Natural & Civil Rights Natural Rights o Natural system o Land and resources held in common Civil Rights o Developed system o Right to land you have improved Similarities with Irish Colonization Violence Religious mission Forced removals Civil rights over natural rights Arrival of Africans First Africans in the Americas o Haiti/Hispaniola 1492 o Immigrants, sailors, tradesmen, etc. First Africans in an English colony o Jamestown 1619 o Unclear status Slavery in British Law Unprecedented o It was new Exists by the 1620s o Poor food o Physical punishment o Separate housing for servants “Chatelization” of labor o Treatment of people like animals Precedes African presence Labor Indigenous labor utilized first Replaced by poor/IrishThey had links with Catholicism, they could camouflage Problem with free men o They wanted to take lands o Bacon’s Rebellion 1676 Demand: Freedom from chattel slavery They were granted the freedom so they had to be paid to work Result: Not guaranteed source of labor African Slaves Benefits to Planters o Cheaper o “Civilized” o Experienced cultivators o Immunities o VulnerableThey had no allies o Identifiable Which came first? Race o Negative connotation of blackness o Limited interactions o Early restrictive laws o Higher Prices Slavery o Irish/Native American precedents o Social integration Interracial marriage was higher before slavery than after slavery was abolished o Gradual imposition of slavery The Process Need for labor Increasing availability of Africans Subtle connection to Latin America Economic interests o Elimination of class warfare 1650-1670 Regulation on firearms Property rights Life servitude established Penalties for interracial relation Restrictions of militia participation Africans grouped with all other servants 1670-1690 Grouping of Native Americans, Africans, Servants Private manumission prohibited in Maryland and Virginia Skin color becomes a defining factor for slavery First use of white rather than “Christian” 1690-1700 Manumission difficult/impossible Curfews & Restrictions on Congregating in Public Disenfranchisement Regulations on property ownership, marriage, education, religion, travel, commercial activity Free and enslaved Africans grouped together Africans are seen as uniquely different