Cultural Anthropology; Chapter 1 *Definitions Only*
Cultural Anthropology; Chapter 1 *Definitions Only* ANTH 02202 - 9
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by cat_difilippo95 on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 02202 - 9 at Rowan University taught by Chelsea Marie Cordle in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Cultural Anthropology Notes Week 1 9-1-16 Definitions Only Agency- the ability for humans to make their own choices and exercise free will even within dominating structures. Anthropology- including its prehistoric origins, anthropology is the study of humanity and contemporary human diversity Applied Anthropology- preventing or solving problems by using the knowledge of anthropology to shape and achieve goals Archaeology- the word archaeology literally means “the study of the old” although “the old” limits to human culture. Archaeologist study the material remains of past human cultures to better understand those old cultures. Archaeology encompasses two major areas: prehistoric archaeology and historical archaeology. Biological Anthropology- including evolution and contemporary variation, biological anthropology is the study of humans as biological organisms. There are three subfields for biological anthropology: Primatology, the study of primates. Paleoanthropology, which uses fossil records to study human evolution. Contemporary Human Biological Variation, which uses various means to find answers to differences in the biological makeup and behavior of contemporary humans. Biological Determination- the theory that the ideas and human behavior are shaped by biological features like genes and hormones. Class- categorizing people based on their economic position in society, usually measured by income or wealth, etc. middleclass citizens. Cultural Anthropology- this is the study of living people and their cultures, including how the cultures vary and change Cultural Constructionism- opposite to biological determination, this is the theory that learning shapes human behavior and ideas. Cultural Materialism- the theory that takes materials of life as the basis of social organization and ideology. Materials of life refers to the environment, natural resources, etc. Interpretive anthropology- the idea that a culture is best understood if one studies what people think about, their ideas, and meanings that are important to them. Cultural Relativism- the idea that all cultures must be understood in terms of values and the culture’s ideas, and not be judged by another culture’s standards. Culture- the learned and shared behaviors and beliefs of different people The definition of culture has varied over the last few hundred years and the countless definitions have not all been recorded. The last record of notes for culture was at 164 when an effort was made to collect the different notes back in the 1950’s, (Kroeber and Kluckohn 1952) but no one has since kept track. Ethnicity- when people in a group share the same language, heritage and/or culture as one another and thus share a sense of identity. Ethnocentrism- when one judges another culture by the standards of his/her own culture rather than the standards of that particular culture. Functionalism- this is the theory that a culture is similar to a biological organism, in which parts work to support the operation and maintenance of the whole Gender- culturally constructed and learned behaviors and ideas from males, females, or blended genders Globalization- increased and intensified international ties related to the spread of Western, especially U.S., capitalism that affect all world cultures Holism- the idea that one cannot understand a culture without paying attention to their different components, including economics, social organization, and ideology. Indigenous People- when a group of people have a long standing connection with their home, and territory, which goes back farther than colonial or outside societies. Linguistic Anthropology- the study of human communication. The study of communication includes the history, origins, as well as modern variations and change. Linguistic anthropology has three subfields: Historical Linguistics which is the study of how language has changed over time as well as how the languages are related. Descriptive Linguistics which is the study of how todays languages have changed in terms of their formal structure. Lastly, there is Sociolinguistics and this study covers the relationship within social variation, social content, and linguistic variation which includes nonverbal communication such as sign language. Localization- the transformation of global culture by local cultures into something new Micorculture- distinct patterns in behavior and thinking that was learned and shared within a larger culture. “Race”- classification of people based off of skin color or hair characteristics. Structurism- the idea that people think and do as large forces tell them, such as media, the economy, social and political organizations. Symbol- symbols are found throughout different cultures and its meaning varies from an object, word or action. Symbols have their own meaning and the meaning varies from each culture. Most symbols are arbitrary.
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