Chapter One BIO 137
Popular in Anatomy & Physiology I
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Destiny Van Metre on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 137 at West Kentucky Community and Technical College taught by Esmarie Boyles in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology I in Biology at West Kentucky Community and Technical College.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Compared Anatomy is the “study of structure and form” Anatomy is derived from “anatome” to cut apart or dissect. Anatomists are “scientists who study the structure and form of organisms” They examine the relationships among parts of the body as well as the structure of individual organs Physiology is “the study of function of the body parts” They are the scientists who examine how organs and body systems functions under normal circumstances and what medication/disease do to these organs/body systems Ex. studying blood capillaries (smallest blood vessels) an anatomist may describe the composition of the thin wall whereas, the physiologist will explain how the thin wall promotes gas and nutrient exchanged between the blood within the capillary and the tissue outside of the capillary Scientific Method • Examine natural events through observation • Develop hypothesis • Experiment/Test the hypothesis through the collection of data • Determine if the data supports the hypothesis Microscopic anatomy “examines structures that cannot be seen by the unaided eye.” two main divisions: cytology & histology Cytology (cyto= cell) (logos=study) the study of body cells and their internal structures Histology (histos=web, tissue) is the study of tissues Gross anatomy (macroscopic anatomy) “investigates the structure and relationships of body parts that are visible to the unaided eye” can be approached several ways Systemic anatomy: studies the anatomy of each functional body system ex. the urinary system would involve examining the kidneys and the organs of urine transport (ureters and urethra) and storage (urinary bladder) Regional anatomy: examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body as a complete unit ex. Axillary (armpit) region would include examining the blood vessels (axillary artery and vein), nerves, lymph nodes, musculature, connective tissue, and the skin Surface anatomy: focuses on both superficial anatomic markings and the internal body structures that relate to the skin covering them Comparative anatomy: examines similarities and the differences in the anatomy of different species ex. examining limb structure in humans, chimps, dogs, and cats Embryology (embryon=young one): discipline concerned w/ developmental changes occurring from conception to birth Pathologic anatomy (pathos=disease): examines anatomic changes resulting from disease (both gross anatomic changes and microscopic changes are examined) Radiographic anatomy: investigates the relationships among internal structures that may be visualized by scanning procedures (sonogram, MRI, xray) Anatomy is a dynamic, changing science. 1.1b Physiology: Details of Function Physiologists examine the function of various organ systems, typically focusing on the molecular or cellular level. Physiology is also divided like anatomysuch as: Cardiovascular physiology: examines the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood ex. how the heart pumps the blood, parameters for healthy BP, details of the cellular exchange mechanisms Neurophysiology (which examines how nerve impulses travel throughout the nervous system) Respiratory physiology (which studies how respiratory gases are transferred by gas exchanged btwn the lungs & the blood vessels) Reproductive physiology (which explores how the regulation of reproductive hormones can drive the reproductive cycle and influence sex cell production and maturation) Pathophysiology “investigates the relationship btwn the functioning of an organ system & disease/injury to that organ system. ex. examining how blood pressure, contracile force of the heart, and gas/nutrient exchange may be affected in an individual affected w/ heart disease 1.2 Anatomy and Physiology Integrated One must have an understanding of the anatomic form of an organ to fully understand the function. The sciences are interdependent. 1.3 The Body's Levels of Organization All living organisms: • have organization • have a metabolism (metabole=change) defined as the sum of all of the chemical rxn that occur w/in the body • (metabolism consists of both anabolism [in which small molecules are joined to form larger molecules] and catabolism [in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules]) • experience growth & developmental • exhibit responsiveness to stimuli • have some sort of internal regulation [organism must be able to adjust/direct internal bodily function in the face of environmental chances~ homeostasis) • Reproduction 1.3.b The View from Simplest to Most Complex Chemical > Cellular > Tissue > Organs > Organ systems> Organism Chemical [involves atoms and molecules] • atoms are the smallest units of matter that exhibit the characteristics of an element • when two or more compare they form a molecule • more complex molecules are called macromolecules • these macromolecules form subunits in cells called organelles Cellular [consists of cells, which are the smallest living structures and serve as the basic units of structure and function in an organism] – are formed from the atoms and molecules from the chemical level ^^^ Tissue level (consist of tissues, which are groups of similar cells that perform common functions) 4 major types of tissue: epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous Epithelial= covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities Connective = protects, supports, and binds structures and organs Muscle = produces movement Nervous = conducts nerve impulses for communication Organ (is composed of organs, which contain two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific, complex functions) ex. small intestine Organ System (contains related organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve a common function) ex. digestive system [including oral cavity, stomach, small/large intestines, liver] Highest level of organization in the body would be the organismal level all body systems function interdependently in an organism 1.3c Introduction to Organ Systems *11 organ systems • integumentary: provides protection, regulates body temperature, site of cutaneous receptors and some glands, synthesizes vitamin D, prevents water loss organs include: skin & associated glands, hair, toenails • skeletal: provides support and protection, site of hemopoiesis (blood cell production), stores calcium and phosphorus, provides sites for muscle attachments organs include: skull, sternum, rib, cartilage, upper limb bones, vertebrae, sacrum, lower limb bones, knee joints • muscular: produces body movement, generates heat when muscles contract organs include: pectoralis major muscle, aponeurosis, tendons, sartorius muscle • nervous system: a regulatory system that controls muscles and some glands and responds to sensory stimuli. Also responsible for consciousness, intelligence, and memory. organs include: sense organ (eye), central nervous system (CNS), brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system (PNS), peripheral nerves • endocrine: consists of glands and cell cluster that secrete hormones, which regulate development, growth and metabolism; maintain homeostasis of blood composition and volume, control digestive processes, and control reproduction. organs include: hypothalamus, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, kidney, testes (male) • cardiovascular: consists of the heart and blood vessels; the heart moves blood through blood vessels in order to distribute hormones, nutrients, gases, and pick up waste products organs include: heart & blood vessels • lymphatic: transports and filters lymph (interstitial fluid transported through lymph vessels) and participates in an immune response when necessary organs include: tonsils, cervical lymph nodes, thymus, axillary (armpit) lymph nodes, thoracic (thorax) duct, spleen, inguinal (groin) lymph nodes, popliteal (knee) lymph nodes, lymph vessels • respiratory: responsible for exchange of gases (oxygen and co2) btwn blood & the air in the lungs organs include: nasal cavity, nose, pharynx (throat), trachea, larynx (voice box), bronchi, lungs • urinary: filters the blood to remove waste products and biologically active molecules, concentrates waste products in the form of urine, and expels urine from the body organs include: kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra • digestive: mechanically and chemically digests food materials, absorbs nutrients, and expels waste products (feces) organs include: salivary gland, oral cavity (mouth), pharynx (throat), esophagus, liver, stomach, large/small intestines • reproductive: (male): produces male sex cells (sperm) and males hormones (e.g., testosterone), transfers sperm to the female (female): produces female sex cells (oocytes) and female hormones (e.g., estrogen and progesterone), receives sperm from male, site of fertilization of oocyte, site of growth and development of embryo and fetus, produces and secretes breast milk for nourishment of newborn organs include: (male): ductus defrens, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, epididymis, urethra, testis, penis, scrotum (female): mammary glands, ovary, uterine tube, uterus, vagina, external genitalia 1.4 The Language of Anatomy and Physiology ** anatomic position = standing upright with the feet parallel and flat on the floor, the upper limbs are at the sides of the body, the palms face anteriorly (towards the front); the head is level, and the eyes look forward toward the observer 1.4b Sections and Planes “The term section implies an actual cut or slice to expose the internal anatomy, whereas the word plane implies an imaginary flat surface passing through the body. **3 major anatomic planes are coronal, transverse, and midsagittal coronal (korone=crown) is also called a frontal plane this plane is vertical and divides the body/organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts. ex. when a coronal plane is taken through the trunk, the anterior portion contains the chest and the posterior portion contains the back & buttocks transverse plane (also called horizontal plane or crosssectional plane) divides the body/organ into superior (top) inferior (bottom) parts. ex. if a transverse plane is taken through the middle of the trunk, the superior portion contains the chest and the inferior portion contains the abdomen. Midsagittal (sagitta = arrow) also known as the median plane, is a vertical plane that divides the body/organ into left/right halves. ex. A midsagittal plane through the head will split it into a left half and a right half (each containing one eye, one ear, and half of the nose/mouth). A plane that is parallel to the midsagittal plane, but either to the left or right of the midsagittal plane, is termed a *sagittal plane. ex. a sagittal plane divides a structure into left/right portions that are unequal (infinite amounts possible) ** in addition to these, there are numerous minor planes called oblique planes that pass through a structure at an angle** Anatomic Directional Terms relative to front (belly side) or back of the body: *anterior= in front of; toward the front surface *posterior= in back of; toward the back surface *dorsal= at the back side of the human body *ventral=at the belly side of the human body relative to the head or bottom of the body: *superior=closer to the head *inferior=closer to the feet *cranial (cephalic)= at the head end *caudal= at the rear or tail end *rostral = toward the nose/mouth relative to the midline or center of the body: *medial= toward the midline of the body *lateral = away from the midline of the body *deep = on the inside internal to another structure *superficial= on the outside relative to point of attachment of appendage *proximal = closer to point of attachment to trunk *distal = farther away from point of attachment to trunk 1.4d Regional Anatomy Human body is partitioned into two main regions, the axial and appendicular regions. The axial region includes the head, neck, and trunk; it forms the main vertical axis of the body. The appendicular region is composed of the upper/lower limbs, which attach to the axial region. Cephalic (head) Cranial (surrounding the brain) Occipital (back of head) Auricular (ear) Frontal (forehead) Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek) Nasal (nose) Oral (mouth) Mental (chin) Cervical (neck) Upper extremity Deltoid (shoulder) Scapular (shoulder blade) Brachial (arm) Antecubital (front of elbow) Olecranal (elbow) Antebrachial (forearm) Carpal (wrist) Dorsum of the hand Manus (hand) Palmar (palm) Digital (finger) Radial (lateral “thumb side” aspect of forearm) Ulnar (medial aspect of the forearm) Vertebral (spinal column) Thoracic Axillary (armpit) Mammary (breast) Pectoral (chest) Sternal (sternum) Abdominal (abdomen) Lumbar (lower back) Sacral Gluteal (buttock) Perineal Inguinal (groin) Pubic (anterior region of the pelvis) Pelvic Coxal (hip) Lower extremity Femoral (thigh) Patellar (kneecap) Popliteal (back of knee) Crural (leg) Sural (calf) Tibial (medial aspect of leg) Umbilical (navel) Calcaneal (heel) Plantar surface (sole) Tarsal (ankle) Dorsum of the foot Digital (toe) Pollex (thumb) Hallux (great toe) Pes (foot) 1.4e Body Cavities and Membranes **Posterior aspect of the body is different from the ventral cavity, in that the posterior aspect contains cavities that are completely encased in bone and are physically and developmentally different from the ventral cavity. The term dorsal body cavity has been used by others to describe this posterior aspect, but is not used here because of these differences btwn the ventral cavity and posterior aspect. The posterior aspect is subdivided into two enclosed cavities: the cranial cavity and the vertebral canal. The cranial cavity is formed by the bones of the cranium, and so it also goes by the name endocranium. This cavity houses the brain. The vertebral canal is formed by the bones of the vertebral column. It houses the spinal cord. The ventral cavity is the larger, anteriorly placed cavity in the body partitioned by the diaphragm into a superior thoracic cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity. **significant difference btwn the posterior aspect and the ventral cavity is that the subdivisions of the ventral cavity are lines w/ thin serous membranes. (membrane is a continuous layer of cells, as compared to the plasma membrane that surrounds a single cell) ** *These serous membranes form two layers: a parietal layer that typically lines the internal surface of the body wall and (2) a visceral layer that covers the external surface of the organs (collectively called the viscera) within that cavity. Btwn the parietal and visceral serous membrane layers is a potential space called the serous cavity that serous membranes secrete serous fluid that has the consistency of oil and serves as a lubricant for all of the friction so that the organs move more smoothly against one another. • Think of a balloon. Put your fist in the middle of it. The outer balloon wall is comparable to parietal serous membranes, whereas the inner balloon wall that is touching your fist is comparable to visceral serous membranes. *Thoracic Cavitythe median space in the thoracic cavity is called the mediastinum. It contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels that connect to the heart. Within the mediastinum, the heart is enclosed by a twolayered serous membrane called the serous pericardium. The parietal pericardium is the outermost layer of the serous membrane and forms the sac around the heart, whereas the visceral pericardium forms the heart's external surface. The pericardial cavity is the potential space btwn the layers that contains serous fluid. *The right/left sides of the thoracic cavity house the lungs which is associated with the twolayered serous membrane called pleura. The external surface of the lung is covered with the visceral pleura, whereas the internal surface of the thoracic cavity is lined by the parietal pleura. Abdominopelvic Cavity [abdominal + pelvic]: peritoneum is the twolayered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity. 1.4f Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants Nine compartments, called abdominopelvic regions, are delineated by using two transverse planes and two sagittal planes. Umbilical (navel=center) Epigastric (above belly) region superior to umbilical region Hypogastric (under belly) region under umbilical region r/l hypochondriac lateral to epigastric regions r/l lumbar regions are lateral to the umbilical cord r/l iliac are lateral to the hypogastric region quadrants: RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ 1.5 Homeostasis: Keeping Internal Conditions Stable bodies maintain an average internal temperature of about 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees Celsius) size of pupil in response to light intensity entering the eye, breathing returns to normal shortly after exercise, heart rate, blood pressure, blood levels of sugar (Glucose) and oxygen are regulated and maintained w/in certain parameters. Homeostasis (homoios=similar, stasis=standing) refers to the ability of an organism to maintain consistent internal environment, or “steady state,” in response to changing internal/external conditions. 1.5a Components of Homeostatic Systems *3 components : receptor, control center, and effector Receptor: is the body structure that detects changes in a variable, which is a substance or process that is regulated. (usually consists of sensory neurons may be in the skin, internal organs, or specialized organs such as the eye, ear, tongue, or nose) A stimulus is a change in the variable (a physical/chemical factor) such as a change in light, temperature, chemicals, or stretch in muscle. ex. the retina of the eye (receptor) detects a change of light (stimulus) entering the eye. Control Center: is the structure that interprets input from the receptor and initiates changes through the effector. (can be thought of as the “go btwn” for the other two components of a homeostatic system) The control center is generally a portion of the nervous system (brain/spinal cord) or an endocrine organ (such as the thyroid gland). Homeostatic system involving the nervous system provides a relatively quick means of responding to change.** ex. regulating blood pressure when you rise from bed in the morning The endocrine system usually provides a means of a more sustained response over several hours/days through the release of hormones. ex. when the parathyroid hormone continuously regulates blood calcium levels Effector: is the structure that brings about the change to alter the stimulus. (most body structures can serve as effectors. Most common effectors are muscles and glands.) ex. smooth muscle in the walls of air passageways regulate airflow into and out of the lungs; glands, such as the pancreas, release hormones 1.5b Homeostatic Systems Regulated by Negative Feedback **Most processes in the body are controlled by negative feedback. If a homeostatic system is controlled by negative feedback, the resulting action will always be in the opposite direction of the stimulus. In this way, the variable is maintained w/in a normal level, or what is called its set point. ex. if you venture outside on a cold day, body temperature may begin to dropthis decrease in body temperature is detected by the sensory receptors of the skin, which send nerve impulses to the hypothalamus (which can also detect changes in body temp by monitoring blood temperature as it passes through this region of the brain). It compares sensory input to body temp set point, and initiates motor output responses to blood vessels in the skin to decrease the diameter of the inside opening (lumen) of the vessels, thus decreasing the amount of blood circulating to the surface of the body. As a result, less heat is released through the skin. Nerve impulses are also sent to skeletal muscles, which cause shivering, and perhaps to smooth muscle associated w/ hair follicles of the skin causing “goose bumps.” In contrast **on a hot day, the sensory receptors would send nerve impulses to the hypothalamus which would initiate motor output responses to the blood vessels making the diameter increase (so that more blood can flow through the body) so that additional blood is brought near the surface of the body for the release of heat through the skin—nerve impulses are also sent to the sweat glands to initiate sweating. Other ex include: “withdrawal reflex” in response to injury from stepping on glass or burning your hand, regulating heart rate & BP when you exercise, or changing breathing rate to an increase in CO2 levels. Endocrine system include: parathyroid gland release of parathyroid hormone in response to a decrease in blood Ca or pancreas release of insulin in response to an increase in blood glucose. 1.5c Homeostatic Systems Regulated by Positive Feedback *homeostatic system may also be controlled by positive feedback. The stimulus here is reinforced to continue in the same directions until a climactic event occurs. Following the climactic event, the body again returns to homeostasis. ** (+) feedback mechanisms occur much less frequently than () feedback mechanisms Breastfeeding is a positive feedback controlled homeostasis: suckling at the breast is the initial stimulus detected by sensory receptors in the nipples. The receptors transmit this input to the control center, the hypothalamus the hypothalamus signals the posterior pituitary to release the hormone oxytocin into the blood. Oxytocin is the “output” that is sent to the effector, which is the glandular tissue of the breast it stimulates the mammary gland to eject the breast milk. The baby feeds & cycle repeats as long as the baby suckles. Once the stimulus is removed, the cycle will stop. Other ex include: blood clotting and contractions during child birth/labor 1.6 Homeostasis, Health, and Disease *characteristics noted about homeostatic systems: they are dynamic, the control center is generally the nervous system/endocrine system, 3 components (receptor, control center, effector), typically regulated through () feedback, when these systems fail it threatens an individual's life
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