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Biology 314, Week 1 notes

by: Danielle Garrison

Biology 314, Week 1 notes Bio 314

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Biology > Bio 314 > Biology 314 Week 1 notes
Danielle Garrison
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About this Document

These notes contain the first 2 chapters of notes for the lecture.
Principles of Molecular Cellular Biology
Class Notes
cells, prokaryotes, eukaryotes, Biology, 314




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Garrison on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 314 at Iowa State University taught by Nilsen-Hamilton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Principles of Molecular Cellular Biology in Biology at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Introduction to Cell Biology Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Eubacteria; Aracheabacteria Animals, plants, protists, fungi Single cytoplasmic cavity Intracellular organelles Genome – DNA (single) Genome – DNA (separate) Unicellular organisms Multicellular organisms (intracellular communication) Microbial communities (intracellular Communicate b/w cellular communication) compartments  Fundamental chemistry of biology – on which cell functions depends o Atoms, polymers, polarity, phase separation (hydrophobic & hydrophilic compounds), chemical reactivity  Building blocks of cells o Sugars, FAs, AAs, nucleotides o Larger units of cells – polysaccharides, fats, proteins, nucleic acids  Key cellular processes – on which most cellular functions depends o Macromolecular function o Selective targeting of proteins & RNA to particular cellular locations o Molecular movements o Signaling molecules & their receptors o Macromolecular assembly o Targeting of proteins to specific locations w/n cell o Molecular movements – motors move stuff round cell ion gradients to initiate new events within cell and body o Receptors and signals – regulate pathways in cell o Cells communicate with each other  Autocrine & paracrine (side by side) signaling  Local and long distance signaling  Membrane enclosed organelles – distributed throughout cytoplasm o Form separate compartments for different cell functions  Light microscope o Gives limited amount of information per cell  Can see nucleus & cytoplasm mainly  Transmission electron microscope o First developed in 1931 o First one used of electron microscopes in 1939 o In 1950s – used by cell biologists o Cells fixed – macromolecules cross linked; dead o Stained – metal containing stain (Uranium, Lead, Tungsten) o X-rays scattered by metal – gives contrast  Scanning electron microscope o Gives detailed images of cells  Cultured cells o Tissues grown in dishes that contain “growth factors” to help them grow o 1950s – started; human cancer – Hela cells (Henrietta Lacks)  Normal mouse cells: 3T3 cells o Standard technique in cell biology since ‘60s  Explores cell functions with experimenting  Microscopy o Light microscope, Phase contrast, and Normaski o Fluorescence – used led light  Observation vs experimentation o Early cell biology investigations  Observations by microscopes  Correlations  Basis for asking questions/hypothesis o Current cell biology investigations  Experimenting with cultured cells  Manipulate/test hypotheses  Determine cause & effect  Understand how cell works  GFP – Green Fluorescent Protein o 1962 – isolation of GFP from a glowing green light under UV light o 1990s – it was shown that GFPs could be used as a luminous genetic tag in cultured cells o 1996 – crystal structure found o 1994-1996 – Tsien showed how the crystal/GFP worked  Can be made into different colors o Can distinguish individual cell types o 2 ways used in cell biology experiments  Synthesized when gene turned on  Amount of fluorescence says how active gene is  Identifies specific cell types and their gene activity  Linked to particular protein as “fusion protein”  Synthesized by cell with protein  Shows location of fused protein in cell  Golgi apparatus – plays a role in secretion Chapter 2 – Chemical Components of Cells  Elements within living organisms – have unfilled outer shells o Atom: nucleus surrounded by electron cloud in which electron exists in defined “shells”  Unfilled electron shell – less stable than filled shell o Atom with completely filled outermost shell, stable, and chemically inert (unreactive) – He, Ar, Ne o To become stable:  Gain electron to fill outer shell  Give up electron to empty outer shell completely o Exchanging electron occurs in chemical reactions  Covalent bonds – atoms linked to molecule directly  Characterized by particular geometries, therefore determine molecular shape o O by itself (non-polar); O added to H (H2O) (polar) o Different covalent bonds have different flexibilities o Can be polar when electrons shaped unequally  Ionic bonds – complete transfer of electrons between atoms  Implication for interactions of macromolecules in cell  Water: o Special properties  H bonds both electrostatic and covalent  O electronegative (partial “-“ charge)  Partial “+” charge on H  Overlap of electron orbitals  Bond strength depends on orientation (how H bonds are being formed)  Strongest when aligned along lines of tetrahedral orbitals o Structure  H bonded lattice (little dashed lines)  Cohesive property o High surface tension, specific heat, heat of evaporation o Crystalline structure – frozen water  Protons move constantly in aqueous solutions (from 1 molecule to another) o Release protons – acid o Accept protons – base  Cells 70% water, rest is chemicals o Macromolecules abundant (24% of cells)  Chemicals in cells o Small organic blocks of cells – sugars, FAs, AAs, nucleotides o Large organic molecules of cells - polysaccharides, fats, proteins, nucleic acids  Hydrophobic – “avoid” water (2-methyl propane)  Hydrophilic – “attract” water (glucose)  Amphipathic molecules – 2 regions, hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas; fatty acids  Triglycerides – lipid carrying polymers  Cell membranes – made by phospholipids; act as selective barriers o This is what defines cells o Plasma and internal membranes  Lipids – naturally form closed systems  Polymers – created by condensation and degraded by hydrolysis o 2 monomers, used for energy o Condensation – removes water molecules to create covalent bond o Hydrolysis – insertion of water molecule to break covalent bond  Sugar molecules – can adopt different structures (chair and boat structures)


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