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BSC 114 Chapter 2 Notes

by: Alexis Elston

BSC 114 Chapter 2 Notes BSC 114

Alexis Elston
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About this Document

All of Chapter 2 is covered as well as in class examples that were not in the book. This is week one and week two of the semester with pictures straight from the textbook and slideshows. All materi...
Principles Of Biology I
Daryl W. Lam
Class Notes
Biology, Diagrams, pictures, definitions, biology definitions, week 1, week 2, chapternotes, Lecture Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Elston on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daryl W. Lam in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology I in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life 2.  Biology is the study of life o Organism: any contiguous system (ie: animal, plant, bacterium)  Living organisms are composed of matter  All biological matter is made up of elements, a substance that cannot be broken  down to other substances by chemical reactions o Compound: two or more elements in a FIXED RATIO  Has characteristics different from those of its elements  ie: Sodium = Soft Metal / chlorine = gas / sodium  chlorine = salt o Essential Element: 20­25% of natural elements that are needed for an  organism to live a healthy life and reproduce  Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen o Trace elements: required by organisms in only minute quantities  Goiter Example 2.  An element’s chemical properties depend on the structure of its atoms o Atom: smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element  Atomic Nucleus: made of neutrons and protons densly packed together  Proton and neutron mass are almost identical and equal about 1 Dalton (Da)  Electron Cloud: space that electrons occupy around the nucleus  Electrons are nearly 2000 times smaller than protons/neutrons in mass  Often depicted occupying shells called electron shells  Atomic Number: number of protons in a nucleus   All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons  Atomic Mass: sum of protons and neutrons  ie:  Isotopes: different atomic forms of the same element – same # of protons / different # of neutrons o All isotopes behave the same way in chemical reactions o Some isotopes are unstable and lose subatomic particles to decay = Radioactive  Radioactive isotopes spontaneously give off particles and energy, causing the atom to  transform to a different element; 14 14  ie: ( C) decays to become ( N)  Rate of decay is known as half­life o Time required for half of any mass of the radioisotope to decay  Radioactive tracers and Radiometric dating in science  Used in PET scans, etc. to follow atoms through metabolism  Used to date fossils  Energy Levels of Electrons:  o Energy: capacity to cause change by doing work  Potential Energy: energy matter has because of its location or structure  An electron’s state of potential energy is called energy level (or electron shell)  The more distant an electron is from the nucleus = greater potential energy  o Energy is required to move an electron away from the nucleus  ie: absorbing light energy in photosynthesis o Energy is released when moving to a lower shell (closer to nucleus)  ie: releasing energy usually in the form of heat Chapter 2 o Electron Distribution st nd rd  Max of electrons in a shell of an atom with no more than 3 shells: 1  = 2, 2  = 8, 3  = 8  Valence Shell: outermost electron shell o Valence electrons: those that occupy the valence shell  Chemical behavior of an atom is determined by its valence  electrons  Elements with full valence shells are chemically inert  (nonreactive)  Noble gases are nonreactive  Electron shells are most stable when they’re full o Valence electrons tent to travel in pairs towards a full shell  The less stable an atom, the more likely they are to react  Sharing electrons = covalent bond  Losing or adding electrons = ionic bond  Electron Orbitals: 3D space where electron is found 90% of the time  First Shell: 1s orbital = 2 max electrons  Second Shell: 2s and 2p orbitals = 8 max electrons o 2s: 2 max electrons o 2p: 3 sets of 2p orbitals = 2 each = 6 max electrons (2+2+2+2=8)  Electronegativity: atom’s attraction for the electrons in a chemical bond  Affected by its atomic number and distance between valence electrons and  charged nucleus o More electronegative an atom = stronger pull of electrons towards itself  Includes shared electrons (laptop bag demo – tug of war)  Unequal sharing creates polar covalent bonds o Creates slightly charged molecules (ie:2H O) 2.  Chemical Bonding Between Atoms o Covalent Bonds: single, double, triple / sharing of valence electrons (Strongest Bonds)  Can be polar or nonpolar / represented in text a2 H or H – H or H:H  o Ionic Bonds: results from gain or loss of electrons (strong but weaker than covalent)  Creates Cations = slightly positive – loses electron  Anions = slightly negative ­ gains electron o Hydrogen Bonds: formed between a hydrogen atom in a polar compound and an electromagnetic  atom in another polar compound (weaker)  o Van der Waals Force: very weak bonds resulting from transient shifting of charges created by the  constant movement of electrons  Dependent on how much surface area one molecule eposes to another  Gecko Example   Molecular Shape and Function o Determines how biological molecules specifically recognize and respond to each other  Molecules with similar shapes can have similar biological effects  Natural endorphins and morphine are similar so both can bind to endorphin  receptors and induce euphoria / relieve pain  Chemical Reactions: making and breaking chemical bonds o Starting molecules are called reactants o Final molecules are called products o Chemical reactions involving biological molecules are biochemical reactions  Biochemistry: study of chemical processes in living organisms o All chemical reactions are reversible  Chemical equilibrium: when forward and reverse reaction rates are equal  Relative concentrations of reactants and products do not change Chapter 2 Situations Covered in Class:  Enlargement of thyroid gland due to Iodine Deficiency  o Iodine is a trace element necessary for synthesis of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)  When levels of hormones fall, thyrotropin­releasing hormone is produced  This hormone then prompts the pituitary gland to make a thyroid stimulating hormone,  which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4, as well as cause the gland to  grow in size by increasing cell division  Results in Goiter  Too much trace element leads to Wilson’s Disease: o Caused by defective copper­binding protein found in liver  Leads to excessive copper circulating through the bloodstream, and over time the copper  is deposited and increased to toxic levels in the liver, brain, kidney, and cornea of eye  Untreated Wilson’s Disease is invariably fatal


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