HORT 3440 Lecture Notes: August 22, August 24, August 26
HORT 3440 Lecture Notes: August 22, August 24, August 26 HORT 3440
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Date Created: 08/26/16
August 22, 2016 New World Tropics Spices and Herbs Vanilla (Vanilla Planifolia) Orchid Family; only crop in this family Tropical vine native to Central and South America Aztecs used for flavoring chocolate Spanish introduced it to Europe for the same purpose Later used as a spice in its own right Flavor comes from the fruit (the vanilla bean) o Consists of millions of tiny seeds Produces vanillin (what creates the flavor) only after a long process Harvesting Process: o Take green fruits (not the flower) o Lay fruits out to sweat in the sun every morning for 2- 6months Forms vanillin crystals Most are grown in Madagascar, which has very few pollinators there o Must pollinate them by hand Vanilla extract: from real vanilla bean, chop fermented beans and extract vanilla with water ethanol solution; more complex flavor due to other chemicals and compounds in it Artificial vanilla: made from wood pulp, clove oil, coal tar Commercially, ice cream and chocolate industries make up most of the commercial use How to cook with a vanilla bean: slit bean, scrape out insides, put it in a liquid with chopped up chunks of the bean, sit for 15-20 minutes, and take out the chunks of bean Allspice (Pimenta Dioica) Member of the Myrtacea Family Evergreen tree native to Central America and the West Indies Combines flavors of clove, nutmeg, and cinnamon Preserving properties o Mayans used the berries to embalm bodies of royalty o Used to preserve meats as well Spanish explorers named it pimento (pepper) because they thought it was black pepper (what they were looking for) Eugenol: the dominant oil in it; found in cloves and cinnamon Absorbs well in fat so used a lot in sausages, meat rubs o Used in Caribbean cuisine, Jamaican dishes, meat rubs, jerk spices, mole sauces o Jamaica is where most of the production takes place Capsicum Peppers (Capsicum spp.) Part of the Potato Family Native to Central and South America Capsicum annum: bell peppers, no heat, sweet; grow in temperate climates Capsicum frutescens: smaller and hotter; grow in tropical climates Most cuisines around the world with hot food use peppers for the heat o Capsaicin molecule: origin of this heat o A lot of heat from seeds and placenta (can scrape out insides to reduce heat) Most mammals find the heat unpleasant o Birds are insensitive to it o Deters mammals from eating it (will kill seeds) and encourages birds for seed dispersal Used as analgesic: kills pain o Triggers some of the same heat-sensitive pain nerves as high temperature does o Takes attention away from the pain Traditional method of rating heat: Organoleptic Scoville Scale o Organoleptic: using the senses; subjective o Tasters take samples of diluted fruit o Scale is based on how much dilution it takes until you cant taste the heat anymore o If they can taste the heat, go to the next step; diluted 10- fold each time Pepper Products Paprika: dried powdered fruits of mild peppers (annum) Tobasco sauce: made from frutescens Cayenne Pepper: can be any of the peppers Red Pepper Flakes: mix of different peppers Chili powder: peppers are only one part of the mix; also includes oregano, cumin, and garlic powder Why Do Things Taste Spicy? Receptors on your skin/ tongue/ mouth are sensitive to heat o When you eat something spicy, your mouth feels like it’s burning because it actually thinks it’s burning o Causes you to sweat and your heart to beat faster Not all foods spicy in the same way; depends on compounds found in it o Why chilis burn your mouth and wasabi burns your nose Why eat spicy food? o No one knows when or why people started to eat it o Some think we used it to kill germs When trying to increase tolerance to it, the pain doesn’t get better—you get stronger August 24 Why were Old World spices good trade items? Used for medicine and flavor, sign of wealth, ceremonial use They were more rare so people were willing to pay a lot for them Easy to preserve and traveled well (small and potent) Long shelf life Why are they less expensive today? They grow in more places (globalized) Better agriculture and harvesting methods; grow in larger scale Better transportation and preservation There are artificial/ synthetic substitutes Herbs From Europe and the Mediterranean Mint Family (Lamiaceae) Vegetable Characteristics: o Square stems, opposite leaves o Aromatic oils that also have medicinal properties o Cosmopolitan (global) distribution Center of diversity in Mediterranean region o Herbs and shrubs o Has hairs/glans on leaves Location of these depends on how we use the plant Reproductive Characteristics: o Verticels: flowers in circles (whorls) around the stem o Old Latin name was Laviatae which means “lip” Flowers are bilaterally symmetrical like faces and have a landing pad for pollinators that look like a lip o Has 4 ovules (eggs) at the style’s base, which turns into a seed when fertilized; turns into “nutlets” Essential Oils: o Provide the aroma and taste o Volatile: easily evaporate at normal temperatures Why the scent is so strong o Soluble in alcohol and fats, less so in water o Usually stored in trichomes (special cells/hairs) Peppermint: - Most important commercially - Genus Menthe - Flower whorls, lip on flower, opposite leaves - Perennial, easy to grow, popular in the mid west - Spreads quickly; grows runner (horizontal) stems - Menthol: main compounds; produces scent, taste, healing properties o Helps with stomach and intestinal discomfort, relieves headaches and muscle pain o Convinces receptors that it’s cold Rosemary - Symbol for remembrance - Leaves covered in oil glands - Evergreen - Good on meats, with bread and olive oil Basil - Annual - Likes sun - Easy to grow - Many varieties - Big ingredient in pesto Oregano and Marjoram - Both in the same genus - Oregano has more biting flavor - Marjoram has milder flavor - Used a lot in Italian cooking ** Herbs spread a lot more because of World War II GI’s fought in Europe and Italy, so they were exposed to their cuisine and herbs Sage - Salvia: saving health and healing - Thought of as a cure-all - Good on meats Thyme - Thymus Vulgaris - A lot of varieties o Eg. Chocolate Thyme o English Thyme is the standard one - Thin, wiry stems - Little leaves - Looks different from a lot of the others in this family - Good to roast on vegetables Parsley (or carrot) Family (Apiaceae) Vegetable Characteristics o Primarily herbs o Alternating leaves, often with a sheath o Leaves often dissected; a lot of leaflets o Aromatic oils o Widely distributed in temperate zones Center of diversity in the Mediterranean o Flower stocks form one point (like an umbrella) (umbel) Reproductive Characteristics: o Umbels of flowers o Small and inconspicuous flowers, in clusters o Oils in canals around the seeds or concentrated in the seeds Cilantro and Coriander - Cilantro is leaf and coriander is the seed/fruit - Cilantro looks much like parsley - Asian, Latin American, Mediterranean cuisines - Originally from Mediterranean Chervil - Highly divided leaves - Light licorice taste - Used in salads/ salad dressings Parsley - A lot of vitamins (A and B) - Good for freshening breath Dill - Leaves used on fish - Seeds important with pickling (dill pickles) Anise - Seed used - Amethole compound: strong licorice flavor o Most commercial licorice things usually use this instead of licorice - Used in liquor Cumin - Used a lot in Latin American and Mediterranean food - Use the seed - Canals have the oils Mustard Family (Brassicaceae) **These last slides were rushed; check out what was missed on ppt when he posts it! - Flowers have four petals in a cross - Fruits in long or short pods opening along 2 sutures (silique or silicle) - Original species has all different vegetables; cultivated for one part or another to get certain vegetable (ie kale and cauliflower) o Terminal bud= cabbage o Swollen bud from stem= brussel sprout o Broccoli and cauliflower - Monkey Plant: silicle - Use seed for mustard (white, black, brown) - Horseradish - Wasabi August 26 Recap What made spices and herbs good for trading? o They could be dried for transport o They had a long shelf life o They were chemically potent and could be used in small quantities o They were in high demand o Supply could be tightly controlled What made the trade less costly? o Better transportation o Grown in large scale o Plants spread globally o Increased competition o Synthetic compounds made (e.g. vanilla) Wasabi (wasabia japonica) Mustard Family 95% of wasabi you get is not actual wasabi Video on ELC** (Couldn’t hear it) o Grown in greenhouse and in gravel o Not likely to be able to grow wasabi in GA—too hot Antioxidants Many herbs and spices are great source of antioxidants Bodies have free radicals (system in body lacking an electron) o They take electrons from other molecules o These molecules being stolen from can be skin, DNA, red blood cells, etc. o Free radicals can do a lot of damage/ breaks down body Antioxidants have a surplus of electrons and donate electrons to free radicals in order to neutralize them Worksheet Questions What are the health benefits of the flavonoid phytochemicals in parsley? o Antioxidants, anti-inflammatory properties, heart and cancer protection Oregano is a great source of antioxidants Why is it important to use fresh, raw garlic? o It offers the most flavor and antioxidants o Heat decreases the effectiveness of its enzymes What is the health benefit of consuming turmeric? o Contains curcumin: one of the most powerful antioxidants o Decreases inflammation, which is the cause of many diseases (i.e. Alzheimer’s) Chile peppers and wasabi trigger the release of what mood- boosting chemicals in our body? o Endorphins ** If you want a summary of different spices/ herbs, look at the glossary in “The Joy of Cooking” **PDF of it on ELC Random Recipes From “The Joy of Cooking” New Mexican Chile Powder - Ground mild chili peppers - Dried oregano (Mediterranean, Mint Family) - Cumin (Mediterranean, Parsley Family) - Ground red pepper *Takeaway: This is a Mexican recipe, but with Mediterranean herbs o Aztecs did not have access to these herbs before, so this recipe is fairly new Madras Curry Powder - Coriander Seeds (Mediterranean, Parsley Family, Seed of cilantro) - Cumin seeds (Mediterranean, Mint Family) - Split peas - Black Peppercorns (Old World Tropics) - Black mustard seeds (Mediterranean) - Dried red chili peppers (New World Tropics) - Fenugreek seeds (Legume Family, Maple taste, Used for imitation maple sugar) - Turmeric *Takeaway: Again, recipe couldn’t have existed before exploration of New World Garam Masala (garam: warming) - Cardamom pods (Ginger Family) - Cloves (Spice Islands) - Cumin seeds (Mediterranean, Mint Family) - Black peppercorns (Old World Tropics) - Cinnamon
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