Week 1: FIW: 8/22- 8/25
Week 1: FIW: 8/22- 8/25 FIW 2114
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shayna M on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FIW 2114 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Sarah Karpanty in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Principles of Fisheries and Wildlife Class 1: 8/22 The focus of a fisheries and wildlife profession is to … study, protect, learn, manage, and conserve. De- Extinction We watched a video on de-extinction, which could also be called synthetic hybridization One animal specified was the passenger pigeon They basically hybridize descendants of the extinct species with cells from the extinct species We were asked to find pros and cons of de-extinction. Cons went over in class on Thurs. 8/25 were: o Could the de-extinct species cause another species to become endangered? o Will they have a role or niche in the much changed environment? o Will the project take away monetary funds from research geared to preserve now endangered species? o Ethical: Is it simply for human curiosity, or does it have a purpose? Reading There was reading assigned the first day of class. A summary of key points mentioned in the 23 pages of text were: Wild: organisms usually legally defined as wild o They are renewable resources (replenish through biological process naturally) o Restrictive view of wildlife: (followed in text) wild terrestrial and partly terrestrial vertebrate animals, reptiles, aquatic mammals Game animals: harvested for recreational purpose Non-game animals: opposite of game Fish: 1 or more fish of the SAME species Fishes: more than one fish of different species Fisheries have targeted species or a featured species but they are not only commercially important fish Fisheries and Wildlife systems have 3 important parts: biota, habitat, and human users o In her text: 1. Organisms, 2. Habitat, 3. Humans o The organisms (biota) are as described in earlier bullets o Habitat: abiotic factors; quantity, quality and type of shelter, water, air required for survival and reproduction o Humans: Direct users: Directly benefit from a fishery or wildlife system Ex: Fishermen, Bait Dealers… Indirect users- Use parts but indirectly yet have affect systems Ex: Loggers, Livestock owners Consumptive: Aligns with direct users: harvest animals or plants from habitat Non-consumptive: Aligns with indirect, they don’t harvest from system Ex: Kayakers, climbers… There are 4 major differences in fish and wildlife o Growth pattern Fish: grow indeterminately (with age and good conditions) Wildlife: grow determinately (have an adult size; stop growing) o Temperature Control Fish: Ectotherms/ poikilothermic Exist at ambient (surrounding) temperature Wildlife: endothermic/ homeothermic Keep almost constant body temp not influenced by surroundings Fish adjust to temperature variance more easily, but don’t adjust to quick changes well o Population measurement Fish: Biomass (kg/ha) because of indeterminate growth, their size is more telling than number within an area Wildlife: Density (#/ha) determinate growth makes it easier to count the number within an area o Reproduction Fish: reproduce more and at a more rapid pace than mammals Important because of mortality rates and repopulation rates Scientific Method is a circular process: o Theory o Predictions from theory o Prediction in form or hypothesis o Experiments, observation, and models based on hypothesis o Theory is supported or rejected Hypotheses aren’t proven correct, ONLY rejected or fail to be rejected o Can’t prove one correct, only reject alternatives o Beliefs ARE NOT theories or hypotheses o Can’t test beliefs with scientific method Management is manipulating factors of fisheries or wildlife systems to get a desired outcome; it’s both an art and a science o In class will use Management and Conservation interchangeably Class 2: 8/25 In class video: In North America, it was soon decided after settlement that it was possible to withdraw too much from the land Difference from European Aristocracy In Europe, hunting and fishing rights were reserved for the privileged (ex: landowners, royalty…) so they had a stranglehold on resources. In the U.S., The states’ rights doctrine gives the right to states to control animal populations in their borders. Colonists decided that the resources belong to everyone. This inclusiveness is a large part of the reason that the North American Model is still around. Two cases helped promote the states’ rights doctrine: McCready vs. Virginia (1876): Commonwealth of VA has the right to limit access to oysters in state waters Geer vs. Connecticut (1896): Geer tried to transport Am. woodcocks, ruffed grouse, and northern bobwhite that was taken legally in Connecticut to another state. Also of importance in the development of the North American Model Lacey Act (aka Game and Wild Bird Preservation Act of 1900): regulates interstate shipment of illegally killed animals. Wildlife, fishes, shellfishes, eggs of organisms, and some plants are protected under this act. Transporting an organism, or even a body part of that organism, from a state where it was killed/captured illegally to another state is in violation of the Lacey Act. This also is in affect for nontribal members transporting organisms for any distance, even if they don’t leave the reservation. The Lacey Act regulates international commerce in protected organisms. If they’re transported, shipped or sold opposed to foreign law or U.S. or state law, the Act was violated. (Ex: selling Ivory from Africa in the U.S. The person taking the Ivory, the person carrying the ivory to the U.S., AND anyone who knew about it without reporting it is in violation.) Also animal and plant species that are possibly harmful to other species are prohibited and transportation is in violation of the Lacey Act. Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918: Made it illegal, unless permitted, to kill, sell, buy, or have a migratory bird or their eggs, body parts, or nests, in your possession. States can only have migratory bird laws if they’re consistent or harsher than federal laws. It was challenged with the Tenth Amendment, however the right to make treaties with foreign nations (Canada in this case) made it okay. It was viewed as a violation of state rights. Duck Stamp Act (aka Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act (1934): funded bird refuges; funded the purchasing and administration for Waterfowl Production Areas and wetland easements. Hunters of any type of migratory bird have to purchase a Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamp in the U.S. This stamp is the Duck Stamp. Pittman- Robertson Act (PR Act) (1937) (aka Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act): 11% tax or guns, ammo, bows, and arrows. The tax is used for wildlife restoration and management in the state in which it’s taxed. If the state uses money from hunting licenses for wildlife management and restoration, it gets PR funds. If the state doesn’t allocate the money to the cause, it loses its PR funds. Some of the money goes toward hunter safety programs as well. This is a carrot-and- stick approach. Carrot- PR funds Stick- no PR funds if the money isn’t rightfully allocated Dingell-Johnson Act (1950) (DJ Act) (aka Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act): modeled after PR Act but applies to fisheries. Taxes of fishing tackle is held for state restoration and management of fisheries. DJ Act money is only given to the state if they use the money from their fishing licenses goes to fishery and wildlife management and restoration. The Wallop-Breaux Amendment to the DJ Act added tax to fishing gear like motors, sonar devices, and fuel for boats. This amendment tripled the money for fisheries work. Habitat mitigation cost is now included in initial costs for construction of federal projects. Treaties made with indigenous tribes have specific terms of rights to fishing and hunting. These supersede state rights to regulate wildlife and fisheries in their borders. Indigenous people can’t be forced to purchase a state license even if fishing off of the reservation under rights guaranteed under these treaties They can only be restricted if a particular fish is being depleted, but they must first restrict anglers and commercial operations. North American Wildlife Model (7 Sisters) Wildlife held in public trust Everyone can engage in conservation and hunting Public trust means everyone has a right and a responsibility to the resources Government manages resources for the Public Trust Prohibition on commerce of dead wildlife Commercial hunting and selling of wildlife isn’t granted in order to sustain wildlife populations Rule of Law The public has a right and responsibility to create hunting and fishing laws as well as develop strategies for wildlife conservation and use Opportunity for everyone Everyone can hunt and fish in the United States and Canada by law Non-commercial use There are guidelines for what wild animals can be killed and what uses they can be killed for. They can’t be killed for their parts alone. (ex: antlers, feathers…) International resource Wildlife and fish migrate across boundaries of not only states, but provinces and countries. The U.S. coordinates with these provinces and countries to protect migratory wildlife. (ex: Migratory Bird Treaty Act) Science is the basis of Management and policy Science is essential in management and sustainability. For example, tracking animals to learn more about their behavior. Public Trust Doctrine Martin vs. Waddell (1842) gave rise to the doctrine. Wanted rights to gather oysters from the Raritan River in New Jersey. First Supreme Court ruling that the states have a right to regulate wildlife harvest but they didn’t override rights given to the federal government by the Constitution. People important to the development of the North American Model George Bird Grinnell- 1800s-1900s The naturalist who founded the Audubon Society. Called for conservation of non-game animals Gifford Pinchot- 1800s to 1900s Helped establish the American Society of Foresters Director of U.S. Dept. of Agriculture and Division of Forestry Coined conservation in terms of natural resources Head of U.S. Forest Service Theodore Roosevelt Initiated National Wildlife Refuge system Expanded National Forest and Park systems Preserved National Monuments, on being the Grand Canyon Ding Darling Writer and Naturalist Helped pass Duck Stamp Act Helped establish the Wildlife Management Institute as well as the National Wildlife Federation Began the present U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Aldo Leopold Founded American wildlife management Wrote Game Management (1993) and A Sand County Almanac (1949)
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