PBIO 1210 Weeks 2 Notes
PBIO 1210 Weeks 2 Notes Pbio 1210
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddi Huff on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pbio 1210 at University of Georgia taught by Momany in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Principles of Plant Biology in Plant Biology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Guide: Vocabulary People PBIO 1210- Principles of Plant Biology Lecture Notes Week 2 8/23/16 1. Lipids- composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen with small amounts of oxygen and phosphorus a. EX: cooking fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, steroids b. Fats and oils i. Energy storage ii. 2x as much energy/g as carbohydrates c. Bends in chain -> kinks -> don’t packs as tight -> liquid i. Saturated fatty acid: all single bonds between carbons ii. Monounsaturated: one double bond between carbons iii. Polyunsaturated: two or more double bonds between carbons d. Fats contain primary saturated fatty acids i. Monounsaturated fats are the healthiest for the human cardiovascular system ii. They must balance saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in structures like cell membranes so that they have the right fluidity for proper function e. Room temperature: fats are solid and oils are liquid i. Double bonds cause kinks ii. Kinked chains form liquids because they can’t coil as tightly 2. Fats and cholesterol a. Fats and cholesterol are hydrophobic i. Don’t mix with blood or water ii. Need carriers iii. Body packages fat and cholesterol into tiny, protein-covered particles called lipoproteins b. LDL (low density lipoprotein) i. Carry cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body; too much can form deposits in walls of arteries (BAD) c. HDL (high density lipoprotein) i. Scavenge cholesterol from the bloodstream, from LDL, and from artery walls and carry it back to the liver for disposal (GOOD) d. Unsaturated fats (mono and poly) improve cholesterol levels (raise HDL and lower LDL) e. Saturated fats- our bodies make all that we need (raise LDL) 3. Trans-fat a. Not found in nature b. Stabilizes and changes properties of oil c. Linked to heart disease, diabetes, obesity, infertility, etc. d. Lowers HDL and raises LDL (BAD) e. Natural fats (cis) are bent, while unnatural -fats are straightened (trans) i. High temperatures convert cis into trans Guide: Vocabulary People 4. Phospholipids- similar to fats but one fatty acid is replaced by a group with an additional polar group a. Fatty acids are non-polar and hydrophobic, while phosphate groups are polar and hydrophilic b. In water, phospholipids assemble a double layer with the hydrophobic ends facing each other- the basic structure of cell membranes c. Waxes- contain fatty acids and another long molecule with OH groups d. Steroids- 4 rings with various side groups i. Most familiar as hormones or “body building” compounds in animals 5. Proteins- large molecules made of 20 different amino acids a. Provides storage and are the machines of the cell b. Amino acids composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen c. Central carbon group bonded to a carboxylic acid group (COOH), an amino group (NH ),2and a side chain (R) d. Side chains (R) determine nature of amino acid e. Hydrophobic, acidic (+), basic (-), polar f. Kinked g. Proteins tend to fold up to expose hydrophilic groups and enclose hydrophobic groups in the interior h. Amino acids i. Plants can make amino acids or themselves but animas can’t ii. Joined by peptide bonds 8/25/16 1. Four levels of organization a. Primary – sequence of amino acids b. Secondary – helical or pleated sheet structures maintained by hydrogen bonds c. Tertiary – folding of protein with shape maintained by covalent bonds between sulfur atoms d. Quaternary – two or more polypeptide chains held together by hydrogen bonds 2. Proteins are the machines of the cell a. 3D shape of enzyme determines substrate specificity b. Substrate: what the enzyme acts o c. Active site: groove or pocket where substrate(s) fit d. Enzymes- catalysts that speed up reactions i. Interact with substrates and lower activation energy needed to break and reform covalent bond 3. Nucleic acids- Large molecules composed of many nucleotide subunits a. Nucleotides composed of: i. phosphate group ii. Sugar - ribose (RNA) or deoxyribose (DNA) iii. Base – uracil (only RNA), thymine (only DNA), adenine, guanine, cytosine (both RNA and DNA) Guide: Vocabulary People iv. Function in transmitting cellular information (much more on this later 4. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) – composed of ugar (ribose), Base (adenine), 3 Phosphates a. Functions as an energy carrier b. when its phosphate groups are broken, energy is released
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