FSHN 300: Chapter 1: Food Selection and Evaluation
FSHN 300: Chapter 1: Food Selection and Evaluation FSHN 300
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brie on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSHN 300 at Colorado State University taught by Eric Stanley Milholland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Food Principles and Applications in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
FSHN 300 Chapter 1: Food Selection and Evaluation Food Selection 5 reasons why we choose foods: 1. Sensory Criteria 2. Nutritional Criteria 3. Cultural Criteria 4. Religious Criteria 5. Psychological and Sociological Criteria Sensory Criteria 1. Sight First impression of food o Ex) Color, texture, size, etc. 2. Odor People can differentiate between 2,000 to 4,000 odors Odors linked with memories Better ability to perceive food when hot/warm o Ex) Hot cheese (more pleasing/more smell) vs. cold cheese (virtually no strong smell/ senses aren’t activated) 3. Taste The 5 Stimuli o Sweet o Salt o Sour o Bitter o Savory (or Umami) Umami: a Japanese term for “delicious” Not as much a zone- more so a flavor Taste Interactions Factors Affecting Taste Flavor: The combined sense of taste, odor, and mouth feel 4. Touch Texture o Some people can only handle the texture of a cooked item while others can only handle the raw version of the same food FSHN 300 Ex) Person 1 only likes the texture of raw (hard) carrots, but person 2 only likes the texture of cooked (soft) carrots Ex) Some people don’t like how soft avocados are… Consistency Astringency o Makes our mouths physically react Ex) Our mouths pucker with lemon Chemesthesis: Chemically initiated senses/ foods that bring on new senses o Pain, touch, and thermal perception Ex) Your mouth feels like it’s hot after eating spicy food but it’s not Ex) Your mouth feels colder after eating mint, but it’s not 5. Hearing We associate sounds with foods and then expect those sounds with cooking or types of food o Ex) Sizzling, crunching, popping o Ex) French bread should have a crackle when cut to indicate freshness Nutritional Criteria 1. Dietary Guidelines for Americans Published by: USDA and DHHA Published every 5 years o Most recent: 2016 Includes healthy guidelines for food intake www.choosemyplate.gov o Updated food pyramid to a more relatable image (dinner plate with sections for what should be on the plate) o Food safety included o Picture version of an ideal/healthy plate ½ fruits and veggies (with a little more veggie), ½ protein and grains, glass of dairy o Supertracker Online tool that helps monitor and plan diet and exercise Calorie Control FSHN 300 Estimated goal for maintaining weight o Women: About 2,000 kcalories per day Differs depending on weight, activity level etc. o Men: About 2,500 kcalories per day Differs depending on weight, activity level etc. Estimated guidelines for meal portions o Women: Three meals and two 200 kcalorie snacks o Men: Three meals and two 300 kcalorie snacks Maintain Weight: Calories are “in balance” Gain Weight: “Caloric excess” Lose Weight: “Caloric deficit” Cultural Criteria Ethnic Influences o Birthplace BBQ in the USA Ex) Southern people are used to sweetened tea whereas other regions are generally used to unsweetened tea Ex) St. Louis, Texas, Memphis and Kansas City barbecue differently (type of meat, cooking technique, type of wood used etc.) Geography and Climate o Areas differ in their availability of various food and produce o Climate may affect what produce can be grown there, therefore affecting people’s choices Cultures differ in manners o Ex) Cutting pasta with your fork isn’t rude in America, but in Italy it’s highly disrespectful Religious Criteria Foods used in religious ceremonies o Communions Ex) Wine and Bread Foods prohibited by religious laws o Eating Kosher o Cows are sacred in Hindu culture so beef is forbidden FSHN 300 Psychological and Sociological Criteria Advertising o Ex) Having an athlete promote a cereal brand to make it seem healthy o Ex) Using words like “natural” and “sugar free” to make people think it’s healthy when it’s not Budgetary Factors o Ex) McDonalds offers 400+ calories for $1; a low income family may opt for this in order to get enough calories Social Factors o Perceived “esteem” of foods People choose “popular foods” or foods that have a good reputation Ex) Kale and acai bowls are popular because people know about their “superfood” title o Peer choices Ex) You may choose ramen in college but will change Biotechnology (GMO’s) o GMO: Genetically modified organism o Alteration of genes in a bacteria, plant, or animal for the purpose of changing it’s characteristics Ex) Watermelon were genetically modified to be “seedless” (less noticeable seeds) Concerns about Food Biotechnology o Allergens Some genetic modifications cross foods that people may have allergies with to other food Ex) Tomatoes have been crossed with fish genes in order to increase the tomato’s frost-tolerance. Someone may have an allergy to fish, which could crossover to that modified tomato. o Gene Contamination Cross pollination o Religious/ Cultural Concerns Organic Foods o Label Types: FSHN 300 100% Organic: All ingredients are certified 100% organic Can have USDA Organic Seal Organic: 95% of ingredients in the product are within the criteria to be “organic” Can have USDA Organic Seal Made with Organic Ingredients: 70% of ingredients in the product are within the criteria to be “organic” Contains Organic Ingredients: Less than 70% of ingredients are within the criteria to be “organic” o Only the USDA can verify as “organic” o Organic: Food that hasn’t been produced with most synthetic pesticides and fertilizers *There can be some synthetics (which are considered safe) Crops that haven’t been genetically modified Livestock produced without antibiotics Food that hasn’t been irradiated Irradiated: An exposure to radiation which improves shelf life by reducing bacteria, parasites, and viruses