Geology 1014, Human Affairs
Geology 1014, Human Affairs GEOL 1014 - 0-61920
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ann McCarty on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1014 - 0-61920 at Oklahoma State University taught by Priyank Jaiswal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Geology and Human Affairs Lecture in Geology at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Geology and Human Affairs. Week 2. Chapter 2 and chapter 3 First test is posted Friday Sep. 2d Chap. 1 textbook notes. 1.1 Intro to Environmental Geology ▯ - Earth began about 3.5 bil. Yrs ago. ▯ - it is thought that the sun will burn out, causing the extinction of humans. ▯ - See pg 7 for the definition of Geology, and Environ. geology. ▯ - - Environ. geology includes the study of: Earth materials, Natural Hazards, Land for site selection, Hydrologic processes, and Geologic processes 1.2 Fundamental Concepts of Environ. Geology - Human Pop. Growth: - the growing pop is a problem. - Resources being used is what is the problem with such a high pop. -Exponential growth: Pop. Bopmb. - means: a constant % of current pop is added each yr. - 2 aspects: growth rt (G) (%), and doubling time (D) (how long it takes X to grow). - figure 1.4 pg 13 - D=70/G - Young pop▯ lack of employment ▯ social unrest. -Older pop▯ gov’t health programs▯ not enough working class to provide it. - Human pop increases by 1.4/yr. - Human pop though history: - It is thought that by 2050, India and China will hold about 1/3 of the pop. -Pop. Growth and culture: - many think that earth is already above its carrying capacity -Edu is very important to this subject. -Earth is the only livable place: -most of the resources here are not renewable bc it takes too long to remake them. -Some believe that over pop will even out in time due to natural disasters and diseases. - Human pop is starting to decrease at this point in time. - Human pop growth is hard to predict due to many variables. -Sustainability: - There are many definitions on pg17. - Environ. Crisis: due to over pop. Urbanization, and industrialization, not enough ethical regard for land use. It also includes: - Deforestation, mining of resources, and Development of groundwater and surface water resources. Pg18. - Earth as a System: - components of earth adjust so that earth can keep functioning. -Input-output analysis (pg 19): - average residence time pg 22 Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology and Human Affairs. Week 2. Chapter 2 and chapter 3 First test is posted Friday Sep. 2 nd - T=S/F where T: constant size and transfer rt, S: total stock, F: average rt of transfer. - Predicting cngs in Earth: - Uniformitarianism: the present is key to the past/future. - Doesnt suggest that magnitude and frequency of natural processes remain constant w/ time. Environmental Unity - Environmental unity: one action causes others in a chain of actions. - putting a dam on a river Earth System Science: - : study of entire planet as a system in terms of its components. Hazardous Earth Processes: - As the human pop increases, it forces ppl to live in more hazardous areas, land use transformations are taking place and the burning of many natural resources are contributing to the earth warming. Scientific Knowledge and Values: - Scientific method: Figure 1.4 on pg 27 - Theory: strong scientific statement that eh hypothesis supporting the theory is likely to be true but has not been proved conclusively. - What creation would look like on a football field, or in a calendar. Cultural and Environmental awareness Why is solving Environmental Challenge so difficult? - They are multifaceted - They are emotionally charged. - There is a lot of debate before anything gets done. - Expediential growth comes up. - Quite a bit of lag time btwn event and challenge is brought up. - Possibility of irreversible cng. - Solutions depend of values of those working on it. Precautionary Principal: - : it is better to be safe than sorry. - Trying to apply this right now is very difficult bc some ppl will interpreit it one way, while others could see it the opposite way. - As it is used more though, it will become more popular. - Over the next 50 years (or until 2050), we need to be very cautious on how we proceed to use earth and its resources. 8.22.16 Practice Exam questions: 1.01: B, 1.02: B, 1.03: D, 1.04: D, 1.05: D, 1.06: B, 1.07: A, 1.08:A, 1.09:A, 1.10:C Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology and Human Affairs. Week 2. Chapter 2 and chapter 3 First test is posted Friday Sep. 2 nd Class Notes: Read chapter readings after chapter is finished in class. On tests: there are 25 questions and 30 minutes. 1. Case History: 2 major CA cities: - San Andreas fault: transform plate boundary btwn N. America and Pacific plates. -This is a natural process, it helps Earth form. - There are 2 major cities on each side of the fault: Los Angeles and San Francisco. - Many major earthquakes are related to fault system. - Los of lives and billions of property damage due to new construction and retrofitting of infrastructure values have become more expensive. - When will be the next “big one”? -This begs the following: - Why do ppl keep living there?: - They could stay due to familiarity with that disaster vs. others. - Economics - Learning curves: each disaster brings about more awareness and better preparation for the next event. - How to deal w/ potential consequence. 2. Internal Structure of Earth: - Earth’s location as said in Sitcom Third Rock from the Sun. - Earth is layered and dynamic: interior differentiation and concentric layers. -In other words: color, texture, etc. - Chemical model by Composition (comp) and Density (D) (heavy v. light): crust, mantel, core (inner and outer), and Moho discontinuity btwn. Crust and mantel - Physical property model (solid/liquid, weak/strong) lithosphere (crust, and upper ridged mantel), asthenosphere, mesosphere, liquid outer core, inner solid core. - This is listed from shallowest to deepest: surface/ crust to core. -This is based on the strength of material, or how hard it is. - if composition cngs, strength doesn't necessarily cng. -EX: different machines w/ different functions, but they have the same amount of strength. - Category is based on composition and strength. - Everything that gets is to understand how processes operate, what property of earth. st - 1ndlassification: composition, what is its make up? - 2 classification: Strength, density, amount of pressure applied. 3. Study of Earth’s interior structure: -What is an Echo?: sound or noise bouncing around - Therefore, earthquakes are sound waves through the ground. - Knowledge primarily through study of seismology. Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology and Human Affairs. Week 2. Chapter 2 and chapter 3 First test is posted Friday Sep. 2 nd - Seismology: study of earthquakes and seismic waves - Examining paths and speeds of seismic waves through reflection and refraction: -EX: put a straw in a bottle of water. Why does the straw appear to have been bent?: looking through water refracts light, making it appear that the straw has been cngd. - Magma likely generated in asthenosphere. - Slabs of Lithosphere (solid) have apparently sunk deeply into mantel (mushy). - Variability of Lithosphere thickness reflects cngs in its age and history. - -From this, we can know a lot about the body that was traveled. - -EX: Mirages 4. Seismic P waves (pressure waves) - 2 types: pressure (P) and Sheer. - Primary/ Push-pull wave, travels like sound wave. - Direction of Rock particle vibrates parallel (||) to that wave propagation. - Fastest rts of propagation, 1 arrival to seismograph. - Body wave travels through Earth interior and all medias liquid and solid. Pressure Sheer (Wave) V. Energy ~~~~~~> -v Energy▯ T\/T\/T\/T\/T ~~~~~~~~▯ Energy Particles move ^ and v 5. Seismic Waves and Internal Structures. - Earth interior boundaries: sudden cngs in speed of seismic waves. - Different character: diff rts an paths of wave propagation. - XXXXXXXXXX 6. Models of Earths Interior - Figure 2.2b on pg 44. - We only occupy the first 100 meters. - 90% isn’t occupied. - 2 meters is what is mainly occupied. - Shallow ground water, and rivers mainly, - oceans are deeper though. - Crust extends to 40 km at most - Lithos: rocks - Core is most dense. - Ocean v. Land sit on diff types of crust. - D of water: 1 g/cm^3 7. Internal Dynamics of Earth: - Evidence: - Landscape - Dynamic phenomena: Earthquakes, volcanoes. - Venus and Mars: also have topography - but they are not living. - - They are missing one element: Plate motions. It is thought that if there is a certain amount of P.T. movement, there can be life on other planets. 8. Plate Techtonics: Hypothesis and Theory Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology and Human Affairs. Week 2. Chapter 2 and chapter 3 First test is posted Friday Sep. 2 nd - Continental drift - Sea floor spreading - Plate Tectonics: unifying theory. 8.24.16 9. Continental Drift -1910’s Alfred Wegner proposed idea. - Called a superhuman continent. - Pangea: all land, unified super-continent. - it stands to reason that if there is a super continent, then there will be a super ocean - Panthalassa and Thethy’s sea. - 2 parts of Pangea: Laurasia and Gondwana land - it starts drifting apart: ~200 mya. - Pangea was thought of bc there were records of the same animals and plants across continents. They were in fossil form. On both sides of the Atlantic ocean. - rock distribution and Paleozoic Glaciation. - coast lines are not continental boundaries, they are just where the water touches the land. - during last glaciation 10,000 yrs ago, the sea level was 10-15 meters lower. 10.Seafloor Spreading - See plate boundary animation. - pay attention to the colored arrows, pink dots, red triangles, green Mt. areas, and their relation to each other. - Continental plates v. Ocean plates. - There is a lack of mechanism for continental drift. - originally, it was unknown. - 1950’s and early 1960’s ocean expedition increase in knowledge of oceanography. -There was s surprise about the topography under the water. - it changes too bc there is constant motion. - 1960’s Harry Hess proposed seafloor spreading. - it is not steady increase though. - seafloor is not a static piece. - mid-oceanic ridges/ spreading centers where as crust is formed and sea floor spreads. - Paleomagnetism data - Dipolar magnet field, which many things in nature are this way. - EX: iron - magnetic N. is geological S. and vis versa. - over time, the magnetics will cng. - we are due for a magnetic switch. - Magnetic field recorded by iron-bearing igneous rocks. - Striking symmetrical magnetic anomaly stripes. - Age of seafloor rocks: progressively younger toward mid-ocean ridge. - - Seafloor spreading figure 2.15 pg 58 Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology and Human Affairs. Week 2. Chapter 2 and chapter 3 First test is posted Friday Sep. 2 nd - - around the red line, the seafloor is symmetrical, and are the youngest rocks getting older going closer to the coast. - Thickness of seafloor sediments: progressively thinner towards ridge. 11.Plate Tectonics: - Unifying theory: study dynamic creation, movement, and destruction process of plates - it is like a recycling cycle. - Plates: fragment of lithosphere. - Plates more in relation to ea/o. at various rts. - No major tectonic movement w/in plates. - Dynamic action concentrated along plate boundary. - Plate boundaries: area of concentrated seismic and volcanic activities X.X.X.X.X.X. - 3 major types of plate boundaries - Divergent: ▯ ▯ - Convergent: ▯ ▯ - transformation: ^\\v - Earth interior convection is mechanism for plate tectonics -core: magnet - outer core: motion of inner and outer started from origin of Earth itself. - the core moves faster relatively to the rest of the earth. - the outer core has convection which moves plates. -EX: boil milk, and add chips. It will create cells. - figure 2.4 on pg 47 - a common question is: how do we differ btwn continental crusts and oceanic crusts? - Table 2.1 on pg 50 - this shows that mts are formed from convergent and divergent boundaries. - Divergent plates: ▯ ▯ - - mid-oceanic ridges - - X.X.X.X.X.X.X.X - Convergent: ▯ ▯ - - c-c: major young Mt. belts and shallow earthquakes. - - c-o: - - o-o: - Transform: ^\\v - - spreading zone is not single continuous rift off set. - - X.X.X.X.X.X. Chapter 2 Notes from the text: Internal Structure of Earth and Plate Tectonics. 1. Internal Structure of Earth - The configuration of continents and ocean basin’s help contribute to currents, and the spreading of underwater heat. The later then contributes Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology and Human Affairs. Week 2. Chapter 2 and chapter 3 First test is posted Friday Sep. 2 nd to climate, weather, as well as where plants and animals find homes around Earth. - Earth is layered and dynamic: - - Earths radius is ~4000mi - - The difference in density btwn the core and the mantle is greater than the earths crust to the atmosphere. - Continents and ocean basins have significantly diff. properties and history: - - 2. How we know about the Internal structure of Earth: - It is largely due to studies of earthquakes and the information that we have on seismology. - Propagating: moving. - We can tell the following from this research and the seismographs that are in place: - - the origin on magma in the asthenosphere - - The Lithosphere slabs have sunk deep into the mantel. - - that the thickness of the lithosphere determines its age and history. 3. Plate Tectonics: - Mainly dealing with the lithosphere when in this section. - Movement of the lithospheric plate: - - what is plate tectonics?: - - a bunch of plates that land is on that move around and form things when they come together, break apart, or slide past each other. - - locations of earthquakes and volcanoes define plate boundaries: - - Seafloor spreading is the mechanism for plate tectonics. - Types of Plate Boundaries - - Divergent: newly produced lithosphere. - - Convergent: - - subduction zones: when one plate goes under another after colliding. - - compression: (force/ unit) when two plates collide and shortening happens. - - folding and faulting - - Transform: - - not single rift, but many rifts that are connected along transform faults - Rates of plate movement - - plate motion is a fast geologic process. - - however, in general, it is slow. 4. A deteailed look at seafloor spreading - Paleomagnetism - Earth’s magnetic field periodically reverses - What produces magnetic stripes? - - reverse magnetized rock. - Why is the seafloor no older than 200 mil yrs? - Hot spots - - volcanic centers Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology and Human Affairs. Week 2. Chapter 2 and chapter 3 First test is posted Friday Sep. 2 nd 5. Pangaea and present continents - Thinks that continental drift is caused by seafloor spreading. 6. How plate tectonics works: putting it together: - Moved by convection. - Push and pull zones pg 65 7. Plate tectonics and environ. geology 8.26.16 8. Wilson Cycle: pg 68 slide 27 - Figure 2.23 - First proposed how crust is destroyed and formed. - Mid oceanic ridges and spreading - Recycling concept, even though continents came together, on the other side of the continents, the crust will be forming there. 9. Hot Spots: - Where magma comes through asthenosphere to become apart of the lithosphere. - Places on earth: volcanic centers w/ magma sources fr. Deep mantle - - EX: Hawaiian islands and Yellow Stone - - something happened 43 mil yrs ago to make the chain cng direction. - Hot spots can be on continents and oceans. - The bend of a seamount chain over a hot spot representing the plate motion. - - Figure 2.16 10.Plate Tectonics and environ. geology. - Significance of tectonic cycles - - Global zones of resources: oil, gas, and mineral ores. - - Global belts of earthquakes and volcanic activities. - - Impacts on the landscape and global climates. - - Geologic knowledge on plate tectonics: foundation for urban development and hazard mitigation. - Figure 2.4b pg 47 11.Critical Thinking Topics: - Assume that Pangea never broke up, how might today’s environ. be diff?: - - ppl would live more along the coasts than they do today. Do to a lack of water - - climate would be diff. - - topography would be diff. - - there may be less cultural diversity - What are the major diff. in late tectonic settings btwn E. and W. coasts in US? - - Earthquakes and volcanoes on the E. coast. - Will tectonic cycle ever stop? Why/not?: - - no. bc the atmosphere is constantly cnging and the lithosphere is dependent on it. - -on going debate when plate tectonics began Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology and Human Affairs. Week 2. Chapter 2 and chapter 3 First test is posted Friday Sep. 2 nd - - it is believed that the plate tectonics began 100 mya, bc that is when the oceanic crust became thicker than the continental crust so that it could start sinking. - - The ring of fire contributes to this as well. - Why is most seismic and volcanic energy released along pacific rim (ring of fire)? - - there is active subduction there - - there is more pressure on the outside pushing it all together, and because the reform is not as fast as the destruction of the crust, so it has not sunk bc it is not as old as the pacific and has not sunk. - Does plate tectonics play a role in shaping your local environ? - - Mts are formed, mainly our earthquakes are due to injection of natural resources such as oil. - - topography plays a big role. - - some form of influence is always present. - - w/o the Rocky Mts, we would not have as many tornadoes. - This reaction is many years in the making. - Colorado was an island like Hawaii. 12.Review question answers: 2.01: C, 2.02: B, 2.03: A, 2.04:B, 2.05: D, 2.06: D, 2.07: B, 2.08: A, 2.09: D, 2.10: B Chapter 3: Minerals and rocks 1) Case History: Asbestos - A group of silicate minerals - - the French baggest were being made on the silicate plates, and ppl then found - Some are hazardous to human health, which causes fatal lung disease - Useful mineral Material: fire retardant property for break lining and insulations. - Fibrous minerals: White (somewhat good :/) Blue (very bad D:< ) - Removal of asbestos: depending upon the properties of asbestos used and context in which they are used. 2) Importance of rocks and minerals - Fundamental building blocks and Earth - Various uses for modern economic developments. - Important clues for figuring out the history of Earth - Knowledge of minerals and rocks as the first important step to better manage Earth’s resources. - Important to our health and environ. 3) Basic Chemistry Review - All matter including minerals and rocks made of atoms - Atom structure: Nucleus and surrounding electrons - Atomic #: unique # of protons in an element’s nucleus - Atomic mass #: sum of # of protons and neutrons - Figure 3.2 pg 77 - Ion: crg atom particles, rxn btwn diff. types of atoms - Isotopes: atoms of same element w/ varied # of neutrons - Chemical bonding: Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology and Human Affairs. Week 2. Chapter 2 and chapter 3 First test is posted Friday Sep. 2 nd - - ionic bonding - - covalent bonds - - metallic bonds 4) Mineral Definitive Properties - Made of an element or chemical compound - Definitive chemical composition - Orderly, regular repeating internal atomic arrangement (crystalline structure) - Inorganic solids - Formed by natural processes. - Diagnostic properties - - color, streak, luster - - crystal form, Cleavage, Hardness - - Special properties (taste, smell, feel, tenacity, reaction to acid, magnetism) 5) Rock forming mineral groups: - More than 4,000 minerals few are common - Not all can be combined - Some have defined rules on how and where to be formed and combined. - Erosion is a part of this - Mining for econ material - Natural elements are a made of a single element, no combinations. - Table 3.2 pg 83 - Silicates: called this bc Silicon is in the makeup. - Carbonates: a good example of this in nature, Coral reefs, go snorkeling. - Sulfides: full of lead oar. - Natural: Gold, Diamond, Sulfur. 6) Rocks: - Aggregated solids of minerals - Three major types of rocks classified by origin,. The way the rocks formed - Fundamental links btwn rocks and environ. (resources, sources for acid rain drainage, land subsidence, Structure foundation failures, Etc.) - Rocks deform in response to geologic forces/stress. - - 3 major: major by origin, way they are formed. - - fundamental links btwn rocks and environ. (resources sources for acid rain drainage) - Igneous: these are the types of rocks that show the stripes that we talked about in class. - - Classified based on : - - Texture: - - dictated by rts of magma cooling - - rts of cooling slower beneath surface, faster nearer to surface -slower magma cools, coarser mineral particles in igneous rocks - lg rock formed fr. 2 stages of cooling, having distinctive diff. sizes. - Granite store will show you good example of all of this. Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology and Human Affairs. Week 2. Chapter 2 and chapter 3 nd First test is posted Friday Sep. 2 - Phareritic: intrusive - Porphyritic planeritic: intrusive - Compositon: - these types depend all on the composition of the magma - felsic/ granitic: silica rich typically related to continental crust - intermediate andesitic: commonly associated with converging. - check out the common Igneous rock slide. Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg and/or figure #, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about.
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