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AnS214-Week 1-Lectures Mon-Fri

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by: Megan Spiegel

AnS214-Week 1-Lectures Mon-Fri AnS 214

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Animal Science > AnS 214 > AnS214 Week 1 Lectures Mon Fri
Megan Spiegel
GPA 3.85

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Hello! These notes cover the topics Body Organization and then just touch on the topic of Digestion. Next week we will continue where we left off with the topic Digestion. These notes are com...
Domestic Animal Physiology
Dr. Adur
Class Notes
AnS214, digestion, GI, organs, organization, Animal physiology, Animal Science
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Spiegel on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AnS 214 at Iowa State University taught by Dr. Adur in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Domestic Animal Physiology in Animal Science at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
AnS 214: Body Organization and Function   ❏ Anatomy: the study of structure and organization of organisms  ­ Cells → Tissues → Organs → Organ Systems     ❏ Cell: the basic unit of structure and function; serves specific functions  ➤ Primary tissues: lots of cells together   a. Epithelial­ form membranes, sheaths, glands   e.g. Intestinal Mucosa       b. Muscle­ elongated cells; 3 types; able to contract  ­ Smooth:  ​ involuntary  ­ Cardiac:  ​ involuntary   ­ Skeletal:​ voluntary     c. Connective­ cells widely spaced in matrix   e.g blood cells    d. Nervous­ can conduct electrical impulses     ◼Organs: composed of 2 or more tissue types­ usually all 4 tissue types  are involved      ◼Organ Systems: 2 or more organs working together to provide a common  function    ◼Homeostasis: maintaining a state of internal normalcy   ­ Maintains feedback loops (negative/positive)   ❏ Main Concepts:                                               Example​ :           ❏ Negative Feedback Loop:  ​ maintains the environmental element within range       ❏ Positive Feedback Loop: r ​ esults due to a steady increase/decrease in environmental  elements    ▯  For some awesome footage relating to the topic of Body Organization watch YouTube  video “Human On A Chip” → link: ​       AnS 214: Digestive System and Gastrointestinal Tract ❏ Importance of GI Tract  ­ Ingestion   ­ Digestion  ­ Absorption    ­ Propulsion  ­ Excretion    ❏ 2 Main Parts:   ­ Necessary Parts:  1. Mouth, esophagus, large/small intestine, pharynx, stomach   2. Tongue, gallbladder, teeth      ◼ Digestive Cycle:                               ❏ Segmentation:​ contractions of the circular muscles in the digestive tract  ­ segmentation slows the progression of chyme through the system   ❏ Peristalsis:​ alternate contraction and relaxation, which pushes ingested food through  the digestive tract towards its release at the anus.     ◼Digestive Processes  ❏ Motility  ­ muscular contractions that chew and break up food   ­ mixes with enzymes to make food easier to swallow   ­ one­way or reflux systems  e.g. humans or ruminants   ❏ Secretion: creates and sends out  ­ digestive enzymes and hormones   ❏ Membrane Transport   ­ absorption of nutrients     ➤​ Microbial v. Enzymatic Digestion Diagram      ◼Regulation of Digestive Tract  ❏ Neural Control  ­ Enteric Nervous System​  ​ ​​Gut’s brain  ­ Submucosal Nerve Plexus ​ →​  stretch receptors (why you start to feel full)   ­ Myenteric Nerve Plexus ​ →​  between muscle layers  ➤​Short reflexes  ​ ( over a short distance ): swallowing and peristalsis  ➤​Long vagovagal reflexes  ​ ( over a long distance ): parasympathetic  stimulation of digestive motility and secretion   ­­ impaired/faulty innervation: damaged receptors     ❏ Hormones: Enteroendocrine cells   ­ diffuse into bloodstream toward distant targets (endocrine)   ­ paracrine diffuses to nearby target cells, sending prostaglandins,  histamines, etc.     ◼Features of the Oral Cavity   ❏ 4 tissue types present  1. Muscle = tongues, jaw muscles   2. Nervous = sensors on the tongue telling you not to eat something and identify  taste  3. Epithelial = mucosal lining of the whole mouth  4. Connective = blood vessels       ◼Stages of Digestion  1. Mechanical digestion: physical breakdown  ­ Body parts involved: teeth, stomach, intestines   2. Chemical digestion: enzymatic breakdown  ­ Body parts involved: saliva, stomach, pancreas, intestines    ◼Parts of the Cavity   ❏ Cheeks and Lips­ w ​ hat do they do?   ­ keeps food between the teeth for chewing   ­ essential for speech and nursing infants   ­ Skeletal muscle   ❏ Palate­ ​what do they do?   ­ roof of the mouth   ­ 2 palates: hard/soft   ❏ Teeth­ ​what do they do?    ­ rooted in the gums, sockets of the mandible and maxilla   ­ different teeth shapes for food breakdown/tearing meat  ❏ Tongue­​ what does it do?    ­ repositions and mixes food during chewing   1 ­ formation of bolus    ­ initiates swallowing, speech, taste  ­ taste buds  2 ­ Lingual Frenulum   ❏ Salivary Glands   ­ 3 types:   1. Parotid  1  Bolus­ chewed up food.   2 Lingual Frenulum­ the small fold of mucosal membrane that connects the floor of the mouth to the  underside of the tongue.  2. Submaxillary   3. Sublingual     ­ 4 components of Saliva:   1. Salivary Amylase   2. Mucin   3. Water   4. Bicarbonate       ❏ Esophagus   ­ straight muscular tube (25­30cm long)   ­ extends from the pharynx to the stomach   ➤Functions of the Esophagus   1. Deglutition: involving the tongue, soft palate, pharynx, esophagus and 22 muscle groups   a. Buccal phase: voluntary contraction of tongue   b. Pharyngeal/ esophageal phase: involuntary; control center in the brain stem  ­ Vagal control   3 ­ Normal peristalsis for food (solids) and gravity for drinks (liquids)   3 Control of the heart, lungs and digestive tract.  


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