AnS214-Week 1-Lectures Mon-Fri
AnS214-Week 1-Lectures Mon-Fri AnS 214
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Spiegel on Friday August 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AnS 214 at Iowa State University taught by Dr. Adur in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Domestic Animal Physiology in Animal Science at Iowa State University.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
AnS 214: Body Organization and Function ❏ Anatomy: the study of structure and organization of organisms Cells → Tissues → Organs → Organ Systems ❏ Cell: the basic unit of structure and function; serves specific functions ➤ Primary tissues: lots of cells together a. Epithelial form membranes, sheaths, glands e.g. Intestinal Mucosa b. Muscle elongated cells; 3 types; able to contract Smooth: involuntary Cardiac: involuntary Skeletal: voluntary c. Connective cells widely spaced in matrix e.g blood cells d. Nervous can conduct electrical impulses ◼Organs: composed of 2 or more tissue types usually all 4 tissue types are involved ◼Organ Systems: 2 or more organs working together to provide a common function ◼Homeostasis: maintaining a state of internal normalcy Maintains feedback loops (negative/positive) ❏ Main Concepts: Example : ❏ Negative Feedback Loop: maintains the environmental element within range ❏ Positive Feedback Loop: r esults due to a steady increase/decrease in environmental elements ▯ For some awesome footage relating to the topic of Body Organization watch YouTube video “Human On A Chip” → link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mg2fJ0UBj_0 AnS 214: Digestive System and Gastrointestinal Tract ❏ Importance of GI Tract Ingestion Digestion Absorption Propulsion Excretion ❏ 2 Main Parts: Necessary Parts: 1. Mouth, esophagus, large/small intestine, pharynx, stomach 2. Tongue, gallbladder, teeth ◼ Digestive Cycle: ❏ Segmentation: contractions of the circular muscles in the digestive tract segmentation slows the progression of chyme through the system ❏ Peristalsis: alternate contraction and relaxation, which pushes ingested food through the digestive tract towards its release at the anus. ◼Digestive Processes ❏ Motility muscular contractions that chew and break up food mixes with enzymes to make food easier to swallow oneway or reflux systems e.g. humans or ruminants ❏ Secretion: creates and sends out digestive enzymes and hormones ❏ Membrane Transport absorption of nutrients ➤ Microbial v. Enzymatic Digestion Diagram ◼Regulation of Digestive Tract ❏ Neural Control Enteric Nervous System Gut’s brain Submucosal Nerve Plexus → stretch receptors (why you start to feel full) Myenteric Nerve Plexus → between muscle layers ➤Short reflexes ( over a short distance ): swallowing and peristalsis ➤Long vagovagal reflexes ( over a long distance ): parasympathetic stimulation of digestive motility and secretion impaired/faulty innervation: damaged receptors ❏ Hormones: Enteroendocrine cells diffuse into bloodstream toward distant targets (endocrine) paracrine diffuses to nearby target cells, sending prostaglandins, histamines, etc. ◼Features of the Oral Cavity ❏ 4 tissue types present 1. Muscle = tongues, jaw muscles 2. Nervous = sensors on the tongue telling you not to eat something and identify taste 3. Epithelial = mucosal lining of the whole mouth 4. Connective = blood vessels ◼Stages of Digestion 1. Mechanical digestion: physical breakdown Body parts involved: teeth, stomach, intestines 2. Chemical digestion: enzymatic breakdown Body parts involved: saliva, stomach, pancreas, intestines ◼Parts of the Cavity ❏ Cheeks and Lips w hat do they do? keeps food between the teeth for chewing essential for speech and nursing infants Skeletal muscle ❏ Palate what do they do? roof of the mouth 2 palates: hard/soft ❏ Teeth what do they do? rooted in the gums, sockets of the mandible and maxilla different teeth shapes for food breakdown/tearing meat ❏ Tongue what does it do? repositions and mixes food during chewing 1 formation of bolus initiates swallowing, speech, taste taste buds 2 Lingual Frenulum ❏ Salivary Glands 3 types: 1. Parotid 1 Bolus chewed up food. 2 Lingual Frenulum the small fold of mucosal membrane that connects the floor of the mouth to the underside of the tongue. 2. Submaxillary 3. Sublingual 4 components of Saliva: 1. Salivary Amylase 2. Mucin 3. Water 4. Bicarbonate ❏ Esophagus straight muscular tube (2530cm long) extends from the pharynx to the stomach ➤Functions of the Esophagus 1. Deglutition: involving the tongue, soft palate, pharynx, esophagus and 22 muscle groups a. Buccal phase: voluntary contraction of tongue b. Pharyngeal/ esophageal phase: involuntary; control center in the brain stem Vagal control 3 Normal peristalsis for food (solids) and gravity for drinks (liquids) 3 Control of the heart, lungs and digestive tract.