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Biology Lecture Notes-Chapter 1

by: Adriana Proctor

Biology Lecture Notes-Chapter 1 BIO-101-105

Marketplace > Chesapeake College > Science > BIO-101-105 > Biology Lecture Notes Chapter 1
Adriana Proctor
Chesapeake College
GPA 4.0
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About this Document

These notes are written the first week of class and are taken for every chapter provided by the Professor.
Fundamentals of Biology I
Doctor Hatkoff
Class Notes
Biology, evolution, life, properties, cells




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adriana Proctor on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO-101-105 at Chesapeake College taught by Doctor Hatkoff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I in Science at Chesapeake College.

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Date Created: 08/27/16
Biology Lecture Notes  Chapter 1    Biology­​The study of life.  In other words, it is the study of organisms, divided into special fields that  cover their:  ● Morphology  ● Physiology  ● Anatomy  ● Behavior  ● Origin  ● Distribution    Biologists, in essence, ask many questions as well as perform research and experiments.  They ask  questions such as:  1. How does a single cell develop into an organism?  2. How does the human mind work?  3. How do different forms of life in a forest interact?    An organism’s adaptations to its environment are the result of evolution.  Humans and animals of all  kinds have evolved since the beginning of time up to present day.  Even now, we are still evolving.    As much as we were told, the evolution of man is not exactly like the image above.  There are still gaps  between many things that scientists are still delving into and discovering.  The deeper we dig into the  Earth, the more we are finding another skeleton of the past to add to the link.    To get a general idea of evolution and how it works, we look at the beach mouse as an example.  Its light  and flecked fur acts as camouflage, which allows the mouse to blend into its surroundings.                In other words, evolution is the process of change that has transformed life on Earth.  Common themes that the study of life reveals    Unifying themes that help to organize biological information:  ● Organization  ● Information  ● Energy and Matter  ● Interactions  ● Evolution  These steps help make sense of the information that the course provides, and make dividing each fact a lot  easier for everyone.    New Properties emerging at Successive Levels of Biological  Organization    Life can be studied at different levels, from molecules to the entire living planet of Earth.  There are  approximately 10 different levels:  1. The Biosphere  2. Ecosystems  3. Communities  4. Populations  5. Organisms  6. Organs  7. Tissues  8. Cells  9. Organelles  10. Molecules  Reductionism­ ​The practice of studying and describing something complex and breaking it down into  something simple, such as the study of DNA molecular structure to better understand the chemical basis  of varying things.  Emergent Properties  Emergent properties are novel properties that emerge at each level and are absent from the preceding  level.   With emergent properties comes system biology, which is a system that is a combination of  components that function together.  An example of this is the humming bird and its wings that are  connected to its heart.    The Levels of Organization include, in order:    Atoms→Molecule or  Compound→Organelle→Cell→Tissue→Organ→Organ System→Organism    These levels, in a way, can explain where life begins as well as how you would define it, although there  are other forms of explaining.  The Cell  The cell is the lowest level of biological organization that can perform all of the activities required for  life.  The two main forms of a cell are ​prokaryotic and eukaryotic.    A ​eukaryotic cell​ contains membrane­enclosed organelles, including a DNA­containing nucleus.  Large  and complex, its cytoplasm contains organelles.  Each organelle carries out a specific function.                                    A ​prokaryotic cell​ however, is smaller and is simpler than a eukaryotic cell.                                Fun Fact­​A prokaryotic cell can double in 20 minutes whereas a eukaryotic cell takes 20 hours!    Organisms Interact with Other Organisms and the Physical Environment    Every organism interacts with other organisms and with physical factors in its environment.  An example  of this is a clown fish that lives in a sea anemone, whereas other species are not able to.  A clown fish’s  predators are not able to predate on its prey due to the reaction it would have with the anemone.      Climate  Scientists calculate that the CO2 that human activities have added to the atmosphere has increased the  average temperature of the planet by 1℃ since 1900    Climate change ​is a directional change in global climate that lasts three decades or more.  The climate  change currently has already affected organisms and their habitats all over the planet.                                          ​ In Studying nature, scientists form and test hypotheses    ● The word science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know”.  ●  Scientists attempt to understand how natural phenomena work using processes that include  making observations, forming logical hypotheses, and testing them. The process is repetitive and  can never be conclusively proven to be true due to the inability to test all alternatives.  Data­R​ ecorded Data.  Hypothesis­​A tentative answer to a well framed question.  Also a step in the Scientific Method.  Deductive Reasoning­​Is a logical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple  premises that are generally assumed to be true.  Inductive Reasoning­​Is a logical process in which multiple premises, all believed true or found true most  of the time, are combined to obtain a specific conclusion.    Not every scientific inquiry can be solved with the scientific method. Sometimes scientists have to  re­direct their research when they realize they have been asking the wrong questions.    Experimental Variables and Controls  ● A controlled experiment compares an experiment group with a control group.  ● The factor that is manipulated and the effect of the factor are both experimental variables.  ●  The independent variable is determined by the researcher.  ● The dependent variable is measured by the experiment.    A scientific theory is much more in scope than a hypothesis. A theory is supported by more evidence.  Scientists are able to reject or modify theories when new research methods produce results that don’t fit.    Over the last few decades science has seen the inclusion of women, minorities, and people from different  countries, all reflecting different cultural standards and behaviors.    


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